Dunedin dating

During a night out with coworkers Patricia gets up to use the restroom and is never seen again. What happened to Patricia Elayne Action?

2020.10.06 17:29 Bylings During a night out with coworkers Patricia gets up to use the restroom and is never seen again. What happened to Patricia Elayne Action?

Background
Patricia was born January 4, 1953 and was 25 years old in May of 1978. She was recently divorced from her ex-husband Bill Woodyard who ended the marriage after leaving her a note saying marriage wasn’t for him after about a year of marriage. After the divorce she had been living with her parents for about 6 weeks waiting until she could get her own apartment. She worked as a waitress at the Kapok Tree Inn for about a month and had just received her first paycheck. She goes by Patsy and may have still used her married last name of Woodyard.
Disappearance
On the night of Friday May 26th, 1978 Patsy went to her brother’s house and left a note saying she would drop by again since no one was there at the time. Afterwards, Patsy met with coworkers for drinks at the Ramada Inn Lounge. She arrived and sat around for about 25 minutes, sipped half her drink and excused herself to use the bathroom. The bathrooms were towards the front of the Lounge. She was seen leaving the Lounge at 11:30 pm and has never been seen alive since. She was close to her parents especially her mother and would always keep them informed on her whereabouts. Her parents contacted the Lounge after she failed to return home. They found out that she was only seen leaving and they proceeded to file a missing person’s report. She was last seen wearing a beige jumpsuit with pink, green, and yellow stripes and a brown shoulder bag.
Her car, a two door 1969 Chevrolet Malibu, was said to have been found a few days later at a Days Inn on US 19 in Tarpon Springs, Florida about 15 miles away from the Ramada Inn. Enough blood was found in her car to indicate a serious injury had been sustained. The blood was on the passenger seat and the floorboard and it appeared that someone had tried to wipe it up. They tested the blood and figured out it was Type O but could not determine if it was Type O Positive which was Patsy’s blood type. All the fingerprints found in the car belonged to Patsy and her family. The only other item found in the car were Patsy’s shoes.
Investigation & Suspects
A massive manhunt ensued using search helicopters, off-road vehicles, and hundreds of volunteers on foot. They searched the woods behind the Days Inn, the woods by Lake Tarpon, Dunedin Beach, and underbrush south toward Clearwater. Tarpon Springs and Clearwater police forces both worked together on this case. Her tires had gravel on them and it lead investigators to believe she may have been killed in a park in the very North end of Lake Tarpon and transported afterwards. No trace of her has ever been found and her family does not believe she left voluntarily.
A potential suspect at the time was a coworker Patty had dated a few times named Mike Swearinger. The police chief Blaine LeCouris at the time described Swearinger as “a real weirdo who had dreams too accurate to suit me”. Patsy’s sister, Diane Action now Diane Action-Rice, has stated that Patsy wanted to distance herself from him because he was possessive and considered him and Patsy an item even though Patsy did not see it that way. Patsy told Diane that she was afraid of what he would do to her if she ended things, Diane reassured her she had no reason to be afraid of him. Patsy told Diane on Wednesday May 24th that she told Mike she was not interested in seeing him on Monday May 22nd.
Mike claims he was driving back from a trip to Miami, Florida the night of the disappearance. He hitchhiked his way back and the driver who drove him was interviewed and their ride went to about 5am. The next day (The 27th) he told Patsy’s parents at their home that he saw a man driving Patsy’s car with her in it and he would go find her. The police questioned him extensively and he claimed that he had 3 dreams where he killed a girl and gave specific dumping locations out. Police checked these locations and found nothing. Mike’s fingerprints were found in the car but he had been in the car plenty of times since they dated. Mike moved out of Florida 3 weeks later. Many years later Mike became ill and on his death bed he was asked about the case again but claimed no involvement.
Her coworkers who were with her that night were all interviewed and nothing conclusive came out it. Her coworkers never attempted to look for her after she failed to come back and never showed any interest in the investigation. Police used the phrase “unwilling to give information” to describe the coworkers after the interrogations. Patsy was not particular close to any of these coworkers she went out with.
The divorce with her ex-husband was described as not amicable but not bitter. Immediately after the divorce he moved to Ohio. He was investigated by police and ruled as a suspect. He never contacted the family about the case.
Some human bones were found on a property in 2000. Patsy’s family submitted DNA back in 2004 to be tested but no results have come from this. The owners of this land have the same last name (Woodyard) as her ex-husband.
Theories
Barbara Barkley went missing May 29th, 1981 and her car was found across the street from the Ramada Inn Patsy was last seen in. Both women were 5’4 and disappeared on almost the same day albeit a few years apart. Sharon Harrer disappeared a year later on November 26, 1979 after being seen getting into a car with a man who called himself Robert Crawford. She was also a waitress at the Fantasm Club and had only worked there for 5 nights before her disappearance. Her and Patsy were both 5’4, 96-98 pounds, and blonde with blue eyes. This could possibly be a serial killer that was preying in Pinellas County.
Conclusion
The family was crushed and devasted by the disappearance. Her father would put up pictures of Patsy around the house, but it was too painful for her mom, so she did not do the same. Her parents divorced 3 years later, and both wound up remarrying, we don’t know if the disappearance played a role in this. Her sister was hospitalized for holding in her emotions regarding the disappearance. Doctors told her she was hours away from dying. She still dreams about her constantly till this day. Her parents have since passed away with no answer to Patsy’s whereabouts.
According to Diane she last spoke with investigators about the case a couple weeks before her 2017 interview on Unfound. They discussed some bones that were found. She said the investigation has shifted a lot from Mike to a guy she went out with in high school to possibly a serial killer over the years. The last news articles showing an active investigation were from 1979 and Diane’s comments are the only hint at a current investigation.
Who do you guys think was responsible for Patricia’s disappearance? Could it have been one of her coworkers at the Lounge that night? Maybe the obsessive coworker she dated? A random killer or a local serial killer? Do you think they lured her out or asked for a ride? Could it be tied to the other disappearances in the area?
Sources:
Blog About The Disappearance
Patricia's Charley Project Page
News Article
News Article
Unfound Podcast Interview With Diane Action-Rice
Sharon Herrer Charley Project Page
submitted by Bylings to UnresolvedMysteries [link] [comments]


2020.10.05 23:15 Laser0pz Announcing an AMA with The Opportunities Party (TOP) leader Geoff Simmons! Tomorrow (Wednesday 7 OCTOBER) from 5:00PM!

Ata Mārie newzealand,
This morning I'm happy to reveal that TOP leader geoffsimmonz will be participating in an AMA session tomorrow evening from 5:00PM.
Date: Wednesday 7 October from 5:00PM
_____
The Opportunities Party (TOP) is contesting its section election and is asking for your Party Vote. TOP is also chasing the Electorate Vote in certain electorates, particularly Jessica Hammond in Ōhāriu, Ben Peters in Dunedin and Geoff himself in Rongotai.
TOP is committed to doing what works to ensure all Kiwis have the opportunity to reach their potential. TOP's priorities for the 2020 General Election include Affordable Housing, a Universal Basic Income (UBI), Smart Small Business and a Climate Friendly Recovery.
Geoff will be online to answer questions along with a few key Spokespeople. ___ Geoff has done some AMAs in the past including November 2018 and December 2019. He can also be found on Twitter, Facebook and TOP's website.
submitted by Laser0pz to newzealand [link] [comments]


2020.09.24 08:30 Lady_Aya Dissolution Honours September 2020

The Order of New Zealand
The Queen has been pleased, on the occasion of the dissolution of parliament, to make the following appointments to The Order of New Zealand:
ONZ
To be Members of the said Order:
BHjr132. For Services to the State
The New Zealand Order of Merit
The Queen has been pleased, on the occasion of the dissolution of parliament, to make the following appointments to The New Zealand Order of Merit:
DCNZM
To be Distinguished Companion of the said Order:
Debbie Ngarewa-Packer of Hāwera. For Services to Māori
Mike Hosking of Auckland. For Services to Journalism
SoSaturnistic. For Services to the State
toastinrussian. For Services to the State
boomfa_. For Services to the State
Romeo Dowling-Mitchell of Dunedin. For Services to the Food Industry
Gregor_the_Beggar. For Services to the State
UncookedMeatloaf. For Services to the State
CNZM
To be Companions of the said Order:
LeChevalierMal-Fait. For Services to the State
CheerfullyPutrid. For Services to the State
Youmaton. For Services to the State

The Queen’s Service Order
The Queen has been pleased, on the occasion of the dissolution of parliament, to make the following appointment to The Queen’s Service Order:
QSO
To be Companions of the said Order:
Frod02000. For Services to the State
ItsKittay. For Services to the State
NeatSaucer. For Services to the State

The New Zealand Antarctic Medal
The Queen has been pleased, on the dissolution of Parliament, to make the following awards of The New Zealand Antarctic Medal:
NZAM
Regina Eisert of Christchurch. For services to science and conservation

Dated at Wellington this 24th day of September 2020.
submitted by Lady_Aya to ModelGovernmentHouse [link] [comments]


2020.08.29 18:03 HaulA29Augl G-ay Da-ting Fir-st D-ate

G-ay Da-ting Fir-st D-ate
Check the Profiles for Free >>>>>>>>>> 🔴►🔴► Dating
Gay Dating Apps for Blackberry Z10 Gay Dating Apps for Chasers Gay Dating Apps for Computer Gay Dating Apps for Couples Gay Dating Apps for Ios Gay Dating Apps for Ipad Gay Dating Apps for Iphone 2013 Gay Dating Apps for Iphone Free Gay Dating Apps for Locals Gay Dating Apps for Love Gay Dating Apps for Massachusetts Gay Dating Apps for Middle East Gay Dating Apps for Nokia Gay Dating Apps for Older Men Who Like Younger Men Gay Dating Apps for Quick Hookups Gay Dating Apps for Relationships Bay Area Gay Dating Apps for Relatonships Not Hookups Gay Dating Apps for Savannah Gay Dating Apps for Sex Gay Dating Apps for Sexting Gay Dating Apps for Stroke Patients Gay Dating Apps for Windows 7 Gay Dating Apps for Windows 7 Phone Gay Dating Apps for Windows 8 Gay Dating Apps Googleplay Gay Dating Apps Hk Gay Dating Apps Houston Gay Dating Apps Huffington Post Gay Dating Apps in Cameroon Gay Dating Apps in Delhi Gay Dating Apps in Egypt Gay Dating Apps in Mexico Gay Dating Apps in the Uk Gay Dating Apps Ipad Gay Dating Apps Israel Gay Dating Apps Itunes Gay Dating Apps Like Hornet Gay Dating Apps Lisbon Gay Dating Apps Make Me Depressed Gay Dating Apps Melbourne Gay Dating Apps Mental Health Gay Dating Apps N Seeking Pigs Gay Dating Apps New Alert Gay Dating Apps New York Gay Dating Apps No Facebook Gay Dating Apps No Hookups Gay Dating Apps Nokia Gay Dating Apps Not Grindr Gay Dating Apps Not Grindr Reddit Gay Dating Apps Not Hookup Gay Dating Apps Not Just for Hookups Gay Dating Apps Older Gay Dating Apps on Android Gay Dating Apps on Blackberry Gay Dating Apps on Both Iphone and Android Gay Dating Apps on Facebook Gay Dating Apps on Iphone Gay Dating Apps Other Than Grinder Gay Dating Apps Other Than Grindr Gay Dating Apps Ottawa Gay Dating Apps Pigs Gay Dating Apps Pinknews Gay Dating Apps Popular as Grindr Gay Dating Apps Reviews Gay Dating Apps Schweiz Gay Dating Apps Scruff Gay Dating Apps Shanghai Gay Dating Apps Site Reddit.com Gay Dating Apps Statistics Gay Dating Apps Suck Gay Dating Apps That's Better Than Grindr Gay Dating Apps Thats Better Than Grindr Gay Dating Apps Tips Gay Dating Apps Trans Gay Dating Apps Uganda Gay Dating Apps Uk 2017 Gay Dating Apps Uk 2018 Gay Dating Apps Us Gay Dating Apps Utah Gay Dating Apps Where People Actually Date Gay Dating Apps Which Shows Post Changes Gay Dating Apps Windows Gay Dating Apps Windows 7 Phone Gay Dating Apps Windows 8 Gay Dating Apps With Hotest Guys Gay Dating Apps With Most Users Gay Dating Apps Worth the Money Gay Dating Apps Zambia Gay Dating Aps Tumbr Gay Dating Arab Middle Eastern Men Gay Dating Arkansas Gay Dating Armidale Gay Dating Around Carlisle Pa Gay Dating Around Netflix Gay Dating as a Minority Gay Dating as an Asian Gay Dating Asansol Gay Dating Asheville Gay Dating Ashley Madison Gay Dating Ashtabula County Gay Dating Asian Guys Gay Dating Asian Guys Daddy Gay Dating Asian Guys Daddy Sf Gay Dating Asite La Jolla Gay Dating Asking a Guy Out Gay Dating Astrology Gay Dating at 35 Years Old Gay Dating at 40 Gay Dating at 45 Gay Dating at 50 Gay Dating at Harvard Gay Dating at Kolkata Gay Dating at the Gym Gay Dating Atlanta Impossile Gay Dating Atlantic City Gay Dating Audio Books Gay Dating Augusta Ga Gay Dating Augusta Maine Gay Dating Aurangabad Gay Dating Australia Free Gay Dating Ayr Gay Dating Ballymena Gay Dating Banbury Gay Dating Bandra Gay Dating Bangalore Vivastreet Gay Dating Bangor Maine Gay Dating Bangor Maine 2018 Gay Dating Baroda-topix/ Gay Dating Barrie Gay Dating Bars Gay Dating Bases Gay Dating Basingstoke Gay Dating Bbc Stories Gay Dating Bbm Pins Gay Dating Bbsr Gay Dating Beaumont Tx Gay Dating Belgaum Gay Dating Belize Gay Dating Belleville Ontario Gay Dating Bellingham Gay Dating Bender Vs Gay Dating Benidorm Gay Dating Bergen Gay Dating Bergen Norway Gay Dating Berkeley Gay Dating Berkshire Gay Dating Best App Gay Dating Beverly Hills Gay Dating Bharuch Gay Dating Bhavnagar Gay Dating Bhilai Gay Dating Bhopal Gay Dating Bhubaneswar Gay Dating Big Black Cock Stories Gay Dating Bisexual Guy Reddit Gay Dating Bkk Gay Dating Blackberry Apps Gay Dating Blackburn Gay Dating Blog London Gay Dating Bochum Gay Dating Boise Gay Dating Bologna Gay Dating Bolton Uk Gay Dating Bonaire Gay Dating Books R Gay Dating Books Reddit Gay Dating Bots Gay Dating Bracknell Gay Dating Brampton Gay Dating Brantford Gay Dating Bristol Uk Gay Dating Bromley Gay Dating Bronx Gay Dating Browser Nsfw Gay Dating Bundaberg Gay Dating Buried Penis Gay Dating Burlington Vt Gay Dating Burnley Gay Dating Bury St Edmunds Gay Dating Buzzfeed Gay Dating by Text Gay Dating Calicut Gay Dating California Beaten by Trump Supporter Gay Dating Cambridge Uk Gay Dating Cambridgeshire Gay Dating Canterbury Gay Dating Cape Coral Fl Gay Dating Cape Coral Florida Gay Dating Cape Town Locanto Gay Dating Carlisle Gay Dating Carlow Gay Dating Castleford Gay Dating Cbe Gay Dating Cedar City Ut Gay Dating Cedar Rapids Gay Dating Central Coast Nsw Gay Dating Central London Gay Dating Central Valley Gay Dating Challenges Gay Dating Chandigarh Gay Dating Channel Gay Dating Charlottesville Gay Dating Chat Format Gay Dating Chat Lines Gay Dating Chat Rooms and Porn Sites Gay Dating Chat Websites Gay Dating Chatrooms and Porn Sites Gay Dating Chatrroms Gay Dating Cheltenham Gay Dating Chester Gay Dating Chichester Gay Dating Chubby Chasers Gay Dating Cinnamon_fire Gay Dating Cjatsworth Ca Gay Dating Clacton on Sea Gay Dating Clarksville Tn Gay Dating Co Clare Gay Dating Co Uk Gay Dating Coach Boston Gay Dating Coach Kansas City Gay Dating Coach London Gay Dating Coach Sf Gay Dating Coaching Gay Dating Cochin Gay Dating Cock Pics Gay Dating Code Words Gay Dating College Advice Gay Dating College Station Gay Dating Com Safe Gay Dating Coming on Too Strong Gay Dating Communication Gay Dating Computer App Gay Dating Conneaut Ohio Gay Dating Conversation Topics Gay Dating Cork City Gay Dating Cornwall Uk Gay Dating Costa Del Sol Gay Dating Cowboys Gay Dating Craigavon Gay Dating Cruise Gay Dating Culture Gay Dating Culture in Munich Gay Dating Cuttack Gay Dating Darlington Gay Dating Davao Gay Dating Dayton Ohio Gay Dating Deal Breakers Gay Dating Dealing With Rejection Gay Dating Decoded Gay Dating Delgi Gay Dating Delhi Ncr Gay Dating Delhi Topix Gay Dating Delray Beach Gay Dating Dentist Gay Dating Denton Tx Gay Dating Depression Gay Dating Derby Gay Dating Derbyshire Gay Dating Derry Gay Dating Desktop Gay Dating Dfw Gay Dating Dharmapuri Gay Dating Differences Gay Dating Difficulties Reddit Gay Dating Difficulty Gay Dating Disabled Gay Dating Disappointment Gay Dating Discord Severs Gay Dating Distinct Gay Dating Dites Robert Brown Diktek Gay Dating Dl Gay Dating Doctor Gay Dating Documentary Gay Dating Does He Like Me Gay Dating Does the Top Propose Gay Dating Doms Gay Dating Don'ts Gay Dating Dos and Don& 39 Gay Dating Dothan Gay Dating Dothan Al Gay Dating Dripling Springs Gay Dating Dumfries Gay Dating Dumfries and Galloway Gay Dating Dunedin Gay Dating Durgapur Gay Dating Durham Uk Gay Dating Dusseldorf Gay Dating Dwarka Mod Gay Dating Dynamics Gay Dating Early Stages Gay Dating East Delhi Gay Dating East London Gay Dating East Sussex Gay Dating Eastern Europe Gay Dating Eksi Gay Dating Elite Gay Dating Elmira Ny Gay Dating en Cali Valle Gay Dating en Cali Valle Rafael Colonia Gay Dating Enfield Gay Dating Enniskillen Gay Dating Erie Pa Gay Dating Erode Gay Dating Espana Gay Dating España Gay Dating Estonia Gay Dating Evansville in Gay Dating Event Gay Dating Events Birmingham Gay Dating Events Brisbane Gay Dating Events Canberra Gay Dating Events Dc Gay Dating Events Denver Co Gay Dating Events in Nyc Gay Dating Events Manchester Gay Dating Events St Louis Gay Dating Events Sydney Gay Dating Facebook App Gay Dating Falkirk Wheel Gay Dating Falling in Love Gay Dating Fargo Gay Dating Faridabad Gay Dating Faroe Islands Gay Dating Fayetteville Nc Gay Dating Fife Gay Dating First Date Gay Dating First Date Advice Gay Dating First Kiss Gay Dating First Message Gay Dating First Month Gay Dating Flagstaff Gay Dating Flowerd for Second Date Gay Dating Flowers Gay Dating for 11 Year Olds Gay Dating for 19 Year Olds in Utah Gay Dating for 20 Year Olds Gay Dating for 30's and 40's Gay Dating for Android Gay Dating for Blac Free of Charge Gay Dating for Black Free of Charge Gay Dating for Blackberry Gay Dating for Boy Lovers Gay Dating for Boylovers Gay Dating for Boylovers Who Date Other Boylovers Gay Dating for College Students Gay Dating for Couple Gay Dating for Iphone Gay Dating for Love Gay Dating for Ltr Gay Dating for Marriage Gay Dating for Men Ober 40 Gay Dating for Men Over 40 Gay Dating for Nerds Gay Dating for Relationship Apps for Local People Gay Dating for Relationships Gay Dating for Sissies Gay Dating for Socially Anxious Gay Dating for Teens Advice Gay Dating for Twinks Gay Dating for Virgins Gay Dating for Windows Phone Gay Dating for Youth Gay Dating Forever Gay Dating Fort Collins Gay Dating Fort Mcmurray Gay Dating Fort Worth Texas Gay Dating Frederick Md Gay Dating Frederivk Gay Dating Free Canada Gay Dating Free Gay Dating Gay Dating Free Messaging Gay Dating Free Search Gay Dating Free State Gay Dating Free Uk Gay Dating Free Usa Gay Dating Friend Zone Gay Dating Friendzonw Gay Dating Frustrating Gay Dating Ft Lauderdale Gay Dating Ft Myers Gay Dating Ft Myers Fl Gay Dating Ftm Reddit Gay Dating Gainesville Fl Gay Dating Galashiels Gay Dating Gambia Gay Dating Game Android Gay Dating Game App Ios Gay Dating Game Apps Gay Dating Game Ios Gay Dating Game Show Orgy Gay Dating Game Voice Actor Gay Dating Game With Masseurs Gay Dating Games Free Online Gay Dating Games Ios Gay Dating Games on Steam Gay Dating Games Porn Gay Dating Gandhidham Gay Dating Gatineau Gay Dating Gauteng Gay Dating Geeks


https://preview.redd.it/89z1woz0tyj51.jpg?width=275&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=2992bb45cd0e1cd0c7af0ddcd2592504f167474e
submitted by HaulA29Augl to u/HaulA29Augl [link] [comments]


2020.08.27 00:02 autotldr Christchurch gunman's plans outlined in court for the first time

This is the best tl;dr I could make, original reduced by 91%. (I'm a bot)
GRAPHIC CONTENT WARNING: THIS STORY CONTAINS DETAILS WHICH READERS MIGHT FIND UPSETTING. Brenton Harrison Tarrant wanted to burn down the two Christchurch mosques after the March 15, 2019 terror attacks where he murdered 51 people.
On January 8 last year - three months before the attacks - he travelled from Dunedin to Christchurch for a reconnaissance mission of the Al Noor Mosque - the main mosque in the city.
THE DAY OF THE ATTACKS. On the morning on March 15, 2019 Tarrant left his address in Dunedin and drove north to Christchurch.
Tarrant had written on the firearms and magazines making reference to various names and dates referencing historic figures and events such as battles and figures in the Crusades, more recent terror attacks and symbols including some used by the Latvian, Hungarian, Estoninan and Norweigan SS. He travelled along SH1 and arrived at the outskirts of Christchurch at 12.55pm. He parked in a carpark close to the Al Noor Mosque and undertook his final preparations.
Shortly before the attack Tarrant sent emails containing specific threats to the Christchurch mosques to Parliamentary Services as well as numerous media agencies both national and international.
"Tarrant aimed the AR-15 slowly and deliberately at the heads of people who appeared to be alive and systematically shot them," the court heard.
Summary Source FAQ Feedback Top keywords: Tarrant#1 mosque#2 attack#3 shot#4 fire#5
Post found in /worldnews.
NOTICE: This thread is for discussing the submission topic. Please do not discuss the concept of the autotldr bot here.
submitted by autotldr to autotldr [link] [comments]


2020.08.26 14:32 Loveawake_com Dunedin Women For Dating

Dunedin Women For Dating submitted by Loveawake_com to u/Loveawake_com [link] [comments]


2020.08.24 07:13 lolpolice88 British Colonial Christianist Terrorist Coward stirred on by online Rightwing, White Power, Christianist, Terrorist Cells, Trumpscum, Church Cults, Skewed Historical Education and complicit media boosting scumbags like those Colonial Canadian Cunts for engagement. Racists free, Ihumatao etc targeted

https://www.rnz.co.nz/news/national/424269/a-loner-with-a-lot-of-money-a-look-into-the-christchurch-mosque-gunman-s-past
Tim Brown,
Warning: this story includes distressing details of the 15 March mosque terrorism attacks.
It's 1.28pm on a still and warm Christchurch Friday.
An almost entirely unknown 28 year old, who in coming days will be referred to in the most banal of terms in light of his actions - traveller, gym junkie, computer nerd - is sitting in his parked Subaru Outback in Leslie Hills Drive.
He is typing up his final post to the toxic online world of 8Chan.
"Well lads, it's time to stop shitposting and time to make a real life effort post.
"I will carry out and [sic] attack against the invaders, and will even live stream the attack via facebook."
The message is accompanied by a link to his Facebook profile and a 74-page 'manifesto'.
His actions over the next half-hour will make Brenton Harrison Tarrant arguably New Zealand's most reviled figure.
The shooting of more than 90 innocent worshippers on 15 March 2019 shocks the world.
Many people will not support our decision to tell this story, in fact many will be angered at us mentioning his name. But, while not seeking to glorify the killer's actions, we believe it is appropriate to try to understand him.
The story of Tarrant's descent from a quiet blonde-haired Aussie boy to New Zealand's first convicted terrorist is far more prosaic than the atrocity which brought him to global attention.
Born on 27 October 1990 to Rodney and Sharon Tarrant in Grafton, about 500 kilometres north of Sydney in regional New South Wales, he was the youngest of two siblings.
His father, a garbage collector, and his mother, a teacher, were well-respected in the community and the wider Tarrant family was well-known in the surrounding Clarence Valley area.
His parents separated before he was a teenager, but his cousin Donna Cox told 7News there was nothing in the family's background to suggest Tarrant would one day become the perpetrator of one of the world's deadliest mass shootings.
"He was never raised like that, in that sort of environment, you know? There was no violence. No family's perfect, but certainly nothing like that," she said.
He attended Grafton High School. But there was nothing remarkable about his schooling years.
He tried rugby league. But, again, he was unexceptional.
He suffered bullying at the hands of his peers.
"There was a time when he was picked on pretty badly. Grafton can be a pretty harsh place ... so if you're overweight and a bit what some people might call useless on the field, you're going to probably get picked on," junior rugby league teammate Daniel Tuite told The Australian.
Tuite said even back then Tarrant kept to himself.
After high school he landed a job at Big River Gym in his hometown. He worked there from 2009 until 2011.
The gym's manager, Tracey Gray, said Tarrant was dedicated to physical fitness.
"He would train a lot, and some could say quite excessively, but then he was passionate about health and fitness and making those changes in his personal space."
Fitness was a passion he shared with his father Rodney, an avid runner and triathlete.
In 2010, Rodney died at age 49 following a diagnosis of mesothelioma - an aggressive and deadly form of cancer.
According to all accounts Rodney and his son were close, and many speculated it was the loss of his father that started the younger Tarrant's descent.

Wandering the world, looking for purpose

About a year after his father's death Tarrant introduced himself to Aussie Stock Forums, saying he had came into the ownership of about $500,000.
"Recently came into contact with a bit of capital due to the passing away of my father.
"Really don't want to lose the money as he paid for it with 30+ years of his life," his introductory post said.
He asked for investment and life advice from those on the forum.
"You need to change your whole vibe, IMO," one user later told him.
"Based on what you're saying, you have no self-confidence or self-respect, but it's those very attitudes that are needed for success in any endeavour."
Tarrant responded: "My self respect is through the roof, I can truly do anything I put my mind to."
"I am a goddamn monster of willpower, I just need a goal or object to work towards."

On the forum he mulled joining the Australian Defence Force, getting into the real estate industry, or even operating some kind of Australia-wide online brothel.
None of it came to fruition.
Most of his posts were flippant and it seems by August he still had not found a goal or objective.
His calls for advice - financial or otherwise - ended.
Soon after Tarrant began to travel the world.
He visited vast swathes of Asia and Europe.
It appeared he was particularly interested in the countries which had sat on the shifting borders between the Ottoman Empire and Europe during the late medieval and early modern eras.
He visited many sites of historical battles between European nations and the Turkish caliphate.
His grandmother, Marie Fitzgerald, told 9News she believed those travels had changed him.
"It's only since he travelled overseas I think that boy has changed - completely to the boy we knew."

A recluse in New Zealand's south

Around August 2017 he moved to Dunedin, by which time - according to himself - he had already decided on carrying out some kind of extremist attack.
He claimed New Zealand was initially intended as only a training ground, but a month later he applied for a New Zealand firearms licence.
In October 2017 he was interviewed at his Somerville Street home by a vetting officer and a month later granted the licence.
Soon after he started stockpiling firearms and ammunition.
Neighbours of his Andersons Bay duplex flat said any interactions with Tarrant were brief and unremarkable.
He was polite, but kept to himself and no one recalled any other vehicles or people coming or going from the flat.
From early 2018 he practiced shooting at the Bruce Rifle Club, just out of Milton - about 50 kilometres south of Dunedin.
He was also a member of a South Dunedin gym.
A staff member described him as a "loner with a lot of money, but no job".
His membership was paid in full and put on hold in October 2018 as he took his final trip overseas.
He visited Pakistan, spending time in the north of the country along the border with Afghanistan.
His social media from the time suggested he also visited parts of Europe during the trip.
According to The Australian, his mother and her partner visited him around Christmas 2018.
She found him living in "hermit-like isolation" in uninviting conditions. There were not even sheets on his bed.
Marie Fitzgerald later recalled her daughter's details of the visit for The Sydney Morning Herald.
"They just thought he was in a bad place then because he got the guns out of the car and showed them that he had guns. If your son does things like that you think 'My God'. He said he was in a rifle club or something. It wasn't the best thing to be in but he had to occupy his time somehow.
"They never told me for ages [upon their return] that he wasn't in a good place. The place he had, there was no place for visitors. Sharon felt that he was in the wrong state of mind."
On 9 January 2019 he renewed his Subaru Outback's licence online, but he only paid for two months registration, though until 16 March 2019 perhaps indicating he had an end date in mind.
The day before the 15 March attacks he posted links on his Facebook profile to 43 different articles, videos and webpages which collectively give a glimpse into his hateful, racist and distorted anti-immigrant worldview, posting similar content to Twitter on the same day.
He also changed his profile picture to a meme of an Australian 'ocker' brandishing a beer bottle with the words "Hold still while I glass you" written across the image. A meme popular among a group of Australian white supremacists on Twitter.

Another Coward Christianist Colonial Mass Murder of brown people in Aotearoa

On 15 March 2019, firearms and ammunition packed into his Subaru Outback along with canisters of fuel, he made the 360km trip north to Christchurch.
On that afternoon he sent final farewells to his mother and his coterie of anonymous online acquaintances.
According to The Australian, he messaged his mother to tell her she would read and hear terrible things about him, but he had decided on his purpose and it was no reflection on her.
Just how alone he was at that moment was exemplified in his last message to 8chan.
"It's been a long ride and ... you are all top blokes and the best bunch of cobbers a man could ask for," Tarrant posted.
His friends were faceless, his interactions existent only in cyberspace.
At 1.33pm he began livestreaming to his Facebook profile.
Tarrant drove the short distance around the block from Leslie Hills Drive, in an industrial estate in the suburb of Riccarton - east of Christchurch's central city, to Deans Avenue where Al Noor Mosque is located.
At 1.36pm, he pulled to the side of the road only a few hundred metres from the mosque. He sat there for just over a minute before saying "All right, time's up", pulling back into the traffic and continuing towards the mosque.
At 1.40pm he approached the front door armed with a shotgun and semi-automatic rifle, and opened fire.
Six minutes later he left for Linwood Mosque to continue his attack.
In just 15 minutes 49 people were dead.
Soon after another died in Christchurch Hospital, and in the weeks following the toll rose to 51.
Forty more were wounded but survived.
Their stories will be heard over the coming days as New Zealand's first convicted terrorist is held to account for his horrific actions 529 days ago."
https://www.rnz.co.nz/news/national/424297/christchurch-mosque-attack-victims-address-gunman-we-did-not-deserve-your-actions
Tim Brown,
The bravery of Christchurch terror attack victim, Naeem Rashid, saved the lives of others.
Naeem Rashid charged at Brenton Harrison Tarrant as he sprayed bullets around Al Noor Mosque at worshippers attempting to escape the main prayer room.
Despite being shot Rashid crashed into the gunman, knocking him onto a knee.
Tarrant is being sentenced in the High Court at Christchurch today for the murder of 51 worshippers at Al Noor Mosque and Linwood Mosque on 15 March 2019.
This is the first time the summary of facts of how Tarrant carried out his crimes has been heard.
The 29 year old sat quietly and emotionless as his actions were detailed in court.
The summary of facts was read this morning, detailing the terrorist's bloody attack.
Heavily armed and wearing a full tactical vest with at least seven fully loaded firearms magazines and a bayonet-style knife attached, Tarrant entered the grounds of Al Noor Mosque and opened fire shortly after the beginning of Jumu'ah.
In his car were more firearms and incendiary devices fashioned from petrol cannisters.
The summary detailed how Rashid's actions saved lives by allowing others to escape the prayer room after Tarrant entered the mosque.
"The main prayer room is a large open-plan room with few exits. At this time there were in excess of 120 worshippers present. On hearing the first shots this large group had moved en masse towards the only two exits - one in the north-eastern corner and one in the south-eastern corner," the summary said.
"In these corners the worshippers were huddled together and on top of each other attempting to hide from the defendant as there was nowhere for them to escape in the open room.
"The defendant turned to his right and fired 32 shots from his AR-15 into the mass of people in the north-eastern corner of the room. The rate of fire was extremely high and the defendant moved the AR-15 across and back many times.
"While continuing to fire into this group the defendant turned his head and looked at a similar group of people huddled together trying to escape through a single-exit door located in the south-eastern corner of the room.
"The defendant turned the firearm towards the south-eastern mass of people. As he did this, Naeem Rashid ran at the defendant from the south-eastern corner of the room.
"When Mr Rashid was approximately one metre from the defendant, the defendant swung the AR-15 around and fired four shots at point-blank range with one shot hitting Mr Rashid's left shoulder.
"Mr Rashid crashed into the defendant and the defendant went down on one knee. The impact dislodged one of the ammunition magazines from the defendant's tactical vest.
"Mr Rashid's actions allowed a number of other worshippers to escape."
Tarrant shot the injured man three more times - killing him.
He murdered 44 people at the mosque and 35 others suffered gunshot wounds.
The terrorist then drove to Linwood Mosque, where he killed seven more and injured five others.
Prosecutor Barnaby Hawes told the court Tarrant was amused by what he had done at Al Noor Mosque.
"The defendant drove away at a high speed. During this journey the defendant was talking and laughing about various aspects of what had occurred and what was occurring as a form of commentary."

Planning and reconnaissance

The summary revealed Tarrant modified his high-powered rifles, purchased legally using a New Zealand firearms licence.
He utilised military-specification sighting systems and telescopic sights. He also modified the triggers to allow him to fire the guns at a faster rate.
He also bought some 7000 rounds of ammunition.
The terrorist used the internet to obtain information about mosques around New Zealand including detailed plans, interior pictures, and details such as prayer times and important dates in the Islamic calendar.
On 8 January 2019, he travelled to Christchurch from his home in Dunedin to carry out reconnaissance of Al Noor Mosque.
Taking a position across the road, he flew a drone over the mosque and recorded an aerial view of its grounds and buildings.
"The defendant then flew the drone back over the Al Noor Mosque, in particular the entry and exit doors," the summary of facts said.
"From this time the Al Noor Mosque and the Linwood Islamic Centre became his primary targets to attack. He also planned to attack the Ashburton Mosque after leaving the Linwood Islamic Centre.
"The defendant made detailed notes regarding the timings as to entry to the mosques and anticipated times for carrying out the attacks and travelling between the mosques.
"The planned time for entry was to ensure the maximum number of worshippers would be present.
"The defendant analysed the mosque layouts to determine likely exit routes fleeing worshippers might utilise."

The terrorist's explanation

Following the attack on Linwood Islamic Centre, Tarrant left along Linwood Avenue before turning right into Aldwins Road and right onto Brougham Street.
Two police officers in a patrol car were able to ram his vehicle and arrest him without resistance.
During his interview with police he admitted carrying out the attacks and said he went into both mosques with the intention of killing as many people as he could.
"He admitted that the incendiary devices were to burn the mosques down and said he wished he had done so," the summary said.
"He stated that he wanted to have shot more people than he did and was on the way to another mosque in Ashburton to carry out another attack when he was stopped.
"In his interview the defendant referred to his attacks as 'terror attacks'. He further stated the attacks were motivated by his ideological beliefs and he intended to instil fear into those he described as 'invaders' including the Muslim population or more generally non-European immigrants."

Attacker 'misguided and misled'

Victims of the attack have started reading their victim impact statements.
Gamal Fouda, Imam of the Al Noor Mosque, addressed the gunman directly as he read his statement.
Fouda was starting a sermon when the gunman entered the mosque.
"You were misguided and misled," he told Tarrant.
"We are a peaceful and loving community. We did not deserve your actions.
"We go to the mosque for peace and worship.
"Your hatred is unnecessary. If you have done anything you have brought the community closer together with your evil actions."
The convicted terrorist made eye contact with the Imam, but did not react in anyway.
He sat emotionless, shackled and surrounded by Corrections officers.
The parents of Ata Elayyan told the convicted terrorist they would never forgive him for taking their son's life.
Ata Elayyan was murdered at Al Noor Mosque.
Ata's father, Mohammad Alayan, recited the Quran to the court.
Earlier on 15 March 2019, he had swapped cars with Ata so he could move property from his apartment.
Alayan told his son to come to Al Noor Mosque early so "he could gain maximum rewards from this blessed day" and swap cars again.
"The day started beautifully - there is no match for Ata's wonderful smile to make a day," he said.
He had met with other organisers at the mosque before prayers began.
The details of the shooting were vague, but he remembered being in severe pain spiritually.
"I was in a state of deep worry about my beloved son praying to Allah that Ata was delayed from coming to the mosque and also in deep sadness for my beloved dead brothers next to me," he said.
They had no news about Ata that day.
"For three days we did not have any news on our beloved Ata.
"Then the devastating news came. Ata had passed away."
When he finally saw Ata's body he was "sitting in his casket as beautiful as an angel with a beautiful smile on his face".
Ata's mother, Maysoon Salama, told Tarrant he had not only killed her son, but his own humanity.
"You gave yourself the authority to take the souls of 51 innocent people. Their only crime in your eyes was being Muslim," she said to him.
"You terrorised the whole of New Zealand and saddened the world. You killed your own humanity and I don't think the world will forgive you for your horrible crime against humanity."
She called on Allah to ensure he would face the most severe punishment in the hereafter.
"You transgressed and you thought you could break us. You failed miserably.
"Our beloved ones are martyrs."
Ata's mother, Maysoon Salama, told Tarrant he had not only killed her son but his own humanity.
She said she doesn't believe the world will ever forgive him."
submitted by lolpolice88 to Maori [link] [comments]


2020.08.10 07:07 ring_ring_kaching Dunedin man found not guilty of raping two women he met on dating app Tinder

Dunedin man found not guilty of raping two women he met on dating app Tinder submitted by ring_ring_kaching to newzealand [link] [comments]


2020.08.08 00:12 AutoNewspaperAdmin [NZ] - Dunedin Tinder date rape trial: Women's 'strikingly similar' testimony stressed NZ Herald

[NZ] - Dunedin Tinder date rape trial: Women's 'strikingly similar' testimony stressed NZ Herald submitted by AutoNewspaperAdmin to AutoNewspaper [link] [comments]


2020.08.08 00:05 AutoNewsAdmin [NZ] - Dunedin Tinder date rape trial: Women's 'strikingly similar' testimony stressed

[NZ] - Dunedin Tinder date rape trial: Women's 'strikingly similar' testimony stressed submitted by AutoNewsAdmin to NZHauto [link] [comments]


2020.08.05 07:12 AutoNewspaperAdmin [NZ] - Tinder date nightmare: Woman tells court of being choked, raped in Dunedin NZ Herald

[NZ] - Tinder date nightmare: Woman tells court of being choked, raped in Dunedin NZ Herald submitted by AutoNewspaperAdmin to AutoNewspaper [link] [comments]


2020.08.05 07:05 AutoNewsAdmin [NZ] - Tinder date nightmare: Woman tells court of being choked, raped in Dunedin

[NZ] - Tinder date nightmare: Woman tells court of being choked, raped in Dunedin submitted by AutoNewsAdmin to NZHauto [link] [comments]


2020.07.27 00:47 isabellesch1 Free or cheap date ideas in Dunedin/Clearwater?

Hello everyone!
I’ve lived in the Dunedin/Clearwater area for about 4ish years, but a guy who I’ve been seeing asked me to pick our next date and I’m kind of at a loss since a lot of things are closed or you can’t really sit inside for long periods of time. We’re also on the younger side so we’d prefer to do something that doesn’t cost much or is even free.
If anyone has any recommendations or ideas please let me know!
Edit: decided on a picnic at a beach!!! thanks for all of your suggestions :)
submitted by isabellesch1 to ClearwaterFl [link] [comments]


2020.07.27 00:41 isabellesch1 Free/cheap date ideas around Dunedin?

Hello everyone!
I’ve lived in Dunedin for about 4ish years, but a guy who I’ve been seeing asked me to pick our next date and I’m kind of at a loss since a lot of things are closed or you can’t really sit inside for long periods of time. We’re also on the younger side so we’d prefer to do something that doesn’t cost much or is even free. The causeway gets a little old after a while!
If anyone has any recommendations or ideas please let me know!
submitted by isabellesch1 to DunedinFlorida [link] [comments]


2020.07.14 07:55 puckly1213 Comet NEOWISE

Does anyone have any tips on which date, what time and best way to see the comet in our area with the naked eye. I went out to Edgewater on Dunedin tonight and was there from sunset until around 10 but could not locate it. I might've been looking too high but honestly I'm not even exactly sure what it is I should be able to see.
submitted by puckly1213 to StPetersburgFL [link] [comments]


2020.06.27 12:53 Li-OB GF and I are after a build to stream from the PS4/Switch - NZ

What will you be doing with this PC? Be as specific as possible, and include specific games or programs you will be using.
Looking to mostly stream games from consoles - Nintendo Switch and PS4, potentially some PC games also such as CSGO
What is your maximum budget before rebates/shipping/taxes?
For the PC itself around $2,000 NZD. Then a further $1,000 NZD for other required items such as an elgato game capture etc.
When do you plan on building/buying the PC? Note: beyond a week or two from today means any build you receive will be out of date when you want to buy.
Hoping to have it done by the end of july
What, exactly, do you need included in the budget? (ToweOS/monitokeyboard/mouse/etc)
If two monitors are required to stream from the consoles then 1x Monitor
Which country (and state/province) will you be purchasing the parts in? If you're in US, do you have access to a Microcenter location?
Dunedin, New Zealand - the are a couple small ones however, I am happy to buy online from PBtech.co.nz and mightyape.co.nz
If reusing any parts (including monitor(s)/keyboard/mouse/etc), what parts will you be reusing? Brands and models are appreciated.
Have an AOC monitor, ANNE Pro 2 keyboard, Razor Mouse
Will you be overclocking? If yes, are you interested in overclocking right away, or down the line? CPU and/or GPU?
maybe later down the line, just happy to get a good streaming rig first.
Are there any specific features or items you want/need in the build? (ex: SSD, large amount of storage or a RAID setup, CUDA or OpenCL support, etc)
Just to be able to stream from PS4/Switch easily.
Do you have any specific case preferences (Size like ITX/microATX/mid-towefull-tower, styles, colors, window or not, LED lighting, etc), or a particular color theme preference for the components?
Not hugely fussed
Do you need a copy of Windows included in the budget? If you do need one included, do you have a preference?
Yes
Extra info or particulars:
Thanks in advance for your help! <3
submitted by Li-OB to buildapcforme [link] [comments]


2020.06.24 04:25 Fight_Rants Dan "The Hangman" Hooker: Full Career Overview (includes many pre-UFC fights)

Dan Hooker: Abridged
Dan “The Hangman” Hooker is a Kiwi MMA fighter and veteran MMA Coach who has recently surfaced as a hot prospect in the UFC Lightweight Division. Hooker was previously a championship kickboxer who worked as head coach for City Kickboxing gym in New Zealand. He’s succesfully coached teammates Israel Adesanya and Alexander Volkanovski to UFC gold in the last 2 years, and he wants City Kickboxing to take home the Triple Crown with his own efforts.
Pre-UFC:
Dan Hooker started his own MMA career with Supremacy Fighting Championship, the regional New Zealand circuit who held fights out of Dunedin and Auckland. In his MMA debut, he submitted his opponent in under a minute.
Following his debut performance, Hooker lost his next fight in a split decision to regional fighter Adam Calver in July 2019. An instant rematch was booked for September, and The Hangman got his revenge, submitting Calver in the first round with an Armbar.
Roughly half of Hooker’s fights would take place in smaller promotions, he was able to put together a 10-4 record before the UFC signed him for their New Zealand card in June of 2014. You probably haven’t scene a lot of this footage, so let’s take a look:
Hooker was 4-3 going into his first fight with AFC, the top regional promotion in Australia. He was matched against Yuma Ishizuka in a 15 minute clinic showcasing Dan’s effective range kickboxing. He then took his 4th loss in 2012 against Haotian Wu, being submitted in the 2nd round after failing to stuff a takedown and getting controlled for the majority of the match.
Hooker was back on the road to success just a few months later, winning the AFC lightweight belt against Rusty McBride via Doctor’s stoppage due to cuts. Hooker had a talent for winning via cut. He took a Featherweight fight the same year, and his opponent, Chengjie Wu would lose inthe same way. Dan was taken down early in the fight, and after getting back to his feet he stayed behind his long punches to avoid the wrestling shots of Wu. After landing a strong left hand, Hooker intercepted Wu with a knee, opening a gash above Wu’s eye, which ended the fight by doctor’s orders.
Hooker returned to his natural Lightweight, and finished Sihle Khuboni with a triangle in just half a round to close out his 2012 schedule. He would return to defend his AFC lightweight title 2 more times in 2013 finishing both of his opponents before the UFC signed him for their upcoming New Zealand card in 2014.
UFC Career:
In 2014 Dan Hooker made the jump to the UFC, squaring off against Iam Entwistle on his home turf. Halfway through the firs round, his opponent attempted a leg lock, but was unable to get deep enough to secure the submission. Hooker instead sat into the 50/50 position and TKO’d his opponent with a brutal onslaught of elbows to the head.
His next 6 UFC fights would be a streak of Lose one – Win one until 2017. He started this pattern with his first UFC loss against Maximo Blanco at Featherweight, and win his return bout by KOing Hatsu Hioki late in the second round.
He lost a very entertaining match with Yair Rodriguez by decision, and turned around to submit Mark Eddiva in the first round. He followed this finish with another unanimous decision loss to Jason Knight.
After his 3rd UFC loss, Dan needed to make a change in order to keep himself relevant. He decided it was time to return to his original weightclass, and was booked to fight Ross Pearson. His fight with Ross Pearson lasted halfway into the second round when he KO’d Pearson with a knee. He walks through the experience himself here.
With his first Lightweight victory, he flew to the states to fight at the New Years PPV, UFC 219. His opponent, Marc Diakiese was submitted with a guillotine choke 1 minute into the 3rd round.
Now 2-0 at Lightweight, Dan was matched up with TUF veteran Jim Miller in April 2018. Miller was able to take down The Hangman, but after Hooker threatened a guillotine choke, Miller let him up. This proved to be a mistake, as Hooker landed a devastating knee KO just seconds later. After this victory, Hooker took the opportunity to call out his next opponent, Paul Felder, who just so happened to be in the octagon doing the post-fight interview at the time.
With a record of 16-7, Dan continued his climb of the Lightweight ladder by challenging Gilbert Burns at UFC 226. Burns came out very aggressive in this fight, landing a power punch early and walking down Hooker. After shaking off the damage, Hooker landed his own straight right, dropping down Burns. Rather than chase a submission on the ground, The Hangman allowed Gilbert to stand up. Just 40 seconds after standing him up, Dan Hooker landed a perfect left hook over the top and knocked out Burns.
Following his third Lightweight victory, Hooker took on the lightning-fast Edson Barboza in a fight that hurts your ribs to watch. The two had a competitive first half of the fight, but it was clear in the third that the damage had taken it’s toll on the hangman, and he was stopped via KO (body punch).
Hooker bounced back 6 months later with a first-round KO of the perennial sacrificial-lamb James Vick to start his 2019. His second showing of 2019, was strong showing, taking a Unanimous Decision over budding real estate agent Al Iaquinta.
On Febuary 23rd, just before the world was taken hostage by a global pandemic, The Hangman would get his wish in front of the home crowd in Auckland. He fought Felder in a Fight of the Night performance, winning a split decision in a tightly contested fight. This fight was amazing, truly a must-watch if you’re interested in getting to know Dan Hooker. This victory set the stage for Hooker’s upcoming fight against Dustin “The Diamond” Poirier.
Other Fighters in this series:
Dustin Poirier
Curtis Baydes
Alexander Volkov
Full Archive
submitted by Fight_Rants to MMA [link] [comments]


2020.06.20 23:59 StatisticalSupernova Is circumcision prevalent in New Zealand?

Only information I could find online specific to New Zealand on this topic was somewhat out of date. I'm curious how other Kiwis feel about circumcision (in 2020); Are you for or against circumcision?
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prevalence_of_circumcision#New_Zealand
According to the World Health Organisation, fewer than 20% of males are circumcised in New Zealand in 2007.[2] In New Zealand routine circumcision for which there is no medical indication is uncommon and no longer publicly funded within the public hospital system.[59] In a study of men born in 1972–1973 in Dunedin, 40.2% were circumcised.[60] In a study of men born in 1977 in Christchurch, 26.1% were circumcised.[61] A 1991 survey conducted in Waikato found that 7% of male infants were circumcised.[62]
submitted by StatisticalSupernova to newzealand [link] [comments]


2020.06.19 19:36 Pt_Ramdas_PujariJi best astrologer in kolkata "~Love vashikaran specialist baba ji ( +91- 7568884333 ) uk, usa, uae, in India,

best astrologer in kolkata "~Love vashikaran specialist baba ji ( +91- 7568884333 ) uk, usa, uae, in India, mumbai, kolkata, delhi, bangalore, chennai +91- 7568884333 love marriage problem solution baba ji in Ahmedabad Gujarat, mohini vashikaran specialist baba ji +91- 7568884333 Hyderabad Telangana, black magic specialist baba ji +91- 7568884333 bengali baba in Delhi, +91- 7568884333 Attraction love spells in Mumbai Maharashtra Online love problem solution baba +91- 7568884333 In Alberta Canada Love Problem Solution Baba Ji +91- 7568884333 In Germany Calgary Uk Husband Wife Divorce Problem Solution Astrologer +91- 7568884333 In Uk London England Love marriage problem solution tantrik baba ji+91- 7568884333 in delhi kolkata, Lover Problem Solution Specialist BABA JI In Europe, Ottawa, Love Problem Solution Specialist BABA JI In London, England How to vashikaran a woman Specialist Baba Ji, Australia Denmark, How to vashikaran my husband Specialist Baba Ji In Europe Kuwait, How to vashikaran in hindi Specialist Baba Ji In Delhi, Bangalore +91- 7568884333 How to vashikaran by photo Specialist, In Mumbai Pune, Thane +91- 7568884333 How to vashikaran a married woman Specialist In London United Kingdom +91- 7568884333 How to vashikaran a boy Specialist In America Usa +91- 7568884333 How to vashikaran husband Specialist
एक फोन आपकी जिंदगी बदल सकता है सभी जगहों से निराश माता-बहनें एक बार अवश्य फोन करें। +91- 7568884333
काला जादू व वशीकरण करने व तोड़ने के एक्सपर्ट 24x7 Available Whatsapp. फोन करे हल पाए जब कहीं न हो काम तो हमसे लें समाधान +91- 7568884333 SPECIALIST : किया-कराया,प्रेम-विवाह, दुश्मन व सौतन से छुटकारा,विवाह में रुकावट,पति-पत्नी मै अनबन या वशीकरण, मनचाहा प्यार.रूठे प्रेमी व शादी के लिए माता पिता को मनना.
World Famous Astrologer Pt. Ram Dasji
People from outside Indian can also call at
+91- 7568884333
The world famous, renowned, reliable and effective astrologer Pandit Ram Dasji Shashtri doesn’t need any formal introduction because he is globally known for providing a wide range of astrology services. His name and the way he looks at people problems speak enough for him. Coming from a family of astrologers, Pandit Ram Dasji Shashtri has devoted his life to astrology since the time he got to know about it. He is an expert astrologer and is specialized in easing the lives of people through Numerology, Gemology, Spiritual Healing, Palmistry, Vastu Shastra, Love psychic readings, Kundli Matchmaking, Fortune Telling, Horoscope and Birth Chart analysis.
Pandit Ji is a leading Vedic astrologer in India who is highly qualified, well experienced, straightforward, and tech-savvy with a creative mind. He is someone who loves to keep his knowledge up-to-date in the field of Indian horoscope astrology and is recognized as the most sought astrologer today. Before entering in the field of astrology for full time, Pandit Ji conducted a thorough research on several horoscopes and found it quite effective, and then made up his mind and thought to get engage into it for fulltime. Nationally as well as internationally, he is considered as the best astrologer for taking the life problems of people on priority basis and never misleading them.
Renuite With Love/ Psychic Reading Online / Love Bonding / problem in Business Job / Improve Financial Status/ Prolong Court Cases/ Lucky Numbe Remove Bad Luck/ Goddess Prayers/ Stop Separation & Divorce /Family Disputes/ Childless Couple
Services :-
+91- 7568884333 Love vashikaran specialist baba ji
+91- 7568884333 How to vashikaran husband Specialist
+91- 7568884333 How to vashikaran a boy Specialist
+91- 7568884333 How to vashikaran a married woman Specialist
+91- 7568884333 How to vashikaran by photo Specialist
+91- 7568884333 How to vashikaran in hindi Specialist Baba Ji
+91- 7568884333 How to vashikaran my husband Specialist Baba Ji
+91- 7568884333 How to vashikaran a woman Specialist Baba Ji
+91- 7568884333 Love Problem Solution Specialist BABA JI
+91- 7568884333 Study Problem Solution Specialist BABA JI
+91- 7568884333 Children Problem Solution Specialist
+91- 7568884333 Business Problem Solution Specialist
+91- 7568884333 Ex Love Back Problem Solution Specialist
+91- 7568884333 Money Problem Solution Specialist
+91- 7568884333 Family Problem Solution Specialist
+91- 7568884333 Divorce Problem Solution Specialist
+91- 7568884333 Marriage Problem Solution Specialist
+91- 7568884333 Career Problem Solution Specialist BABA JI
+91- 7568884333 Husband And Wife Problem Solution
+91- 7568884333 Voodoo Love **** Specialist
+91- 7568884333 All Problem Solution BABA JI
+91- 7568884333 Any Type Problem Solution BABA JI
+91- 7568884333 Relationship Problem Solution BABA JI
+91- 7568884333 Like jadu-tona Specialist BABA JI
+91- 7568884333 Business related problems Specialist BABA JI
+91- 7568884333 free from enemy / 2nd wife BABA JI
+91- 7568884333 Settle in foreign Specialist BABA JI
+91- 7568884333 Desired love Specialist BABA JI
+91- 7568884333 between husband / wife Specialist
+91- 7568884333 Problems in study Specialist BABA JI
+91- 7568884333 Women Specialist BABA JI
+91- 7568884333 Intoxication Specialist BABA JI
+91- 7568884333 Physical problems Specialist BABA JI
+91- 7568884333 Domestic controversy Specialist BABA JI
+91- 7568884333 Problems in family relations Specialist BABA JI
+91- 7568884333 Promotions or willful marriage Specialist BABA JI
+91- 7568884333 Love vashikaran black magic specialist baba ji
+91- 7568884333 Love vashikaran black magic specialist baba ji
+91- 7568884333 Online black magic specialist astrologer
+91- 7568884333 Black magic **** Specialist baba Ji
+91- 7568884333 Tantra mantra black magic Specialist Baba Ji
+91- 7568884333 Black magic for love Specialist Baba Ji
+91- 7568884333 Kala jadu specialist Specialist baba Ji
+91- 7568884333 Online black magic vashikaran specialist baba ji
+91- 7568884333 Black magic **** specialist baba ji
+91- 7568884333 Online Girl Control Vashikaran Specialist
+91- 7568884333 Tantra mantra black magic specialist baba ji
+91- 7568884333 Black magic for love specialist baba ji
+91- 7568884333 Black magic to get love back specialist baba ji
+91- 7568884333 Love vashikaran specialist baba ji
+91- 7568884333 Love vashikaran specialist aghori baba ji
+91- 7568884333 Love vashikaran specialist baba ji
+91- 7568884333 Vashikaran mantra in hindi
+91- 7568884333 Love marriage problem Vashikaran specialist
+91- 7568884333 Black magic solution specialist baba ji
+91- 7568884333 Graha klesh specialist baba ji
+91- 7568884333 Karobar specialist baba ji
+91- 7568884333 Online love problem solution baba baba ji
+91- 7568884333 Intercast love marriage problem solution baba ji
+91- 7568884333 Vashikaran specialist baba ji
+91- 7568884333 Love marriage problem solution baba ji
+91- 7568884333 Love marriage problem solution astrology
+91- 7568884333 Caste problem in love marriage
+91- 7568884333 Love problem solution in hindi baba ji
+91- 7568884333 Intercast love marriage problem solution
+91- 7568884333 Vashikaran mantra for love marriage
+91- 7568884333 Vashikaran mantra for love baba ji
+91- 7568884333 Career problem solution Vashikaran astrology baba ji
+91- 7568884333 Vashikaran mantra specialist baba ji ji
+91- 7568884333 Business problem solution baba ji
+91- 7568884333 Santan samasya specialist baba ji
+91- 7568884333 (childless problem solution specialist baba ji
+91- 7568884333 Lal kitab upay, indian vashikaran, baba ji
+91- 7568884333 Black magic specialist baba ji
husband wife Dispute Love problem solution
LOVE MATTER SOLUTION BABA JI
FAMILY PROBLEM SOLUTION BABA JI
HUBANDS SECOND WIFE SOLUTION BABA JI
GET ON LINE EDUCATION SOLUTION BABA JI
ONLINE RELATIONSHIP ANALYSIS SOLUTION BABA JI
ONLINE ASTROLOGY CONSULTANT SOLUTION BABA JI
Husband & Wife Relationship Problem Solution
Problems in family relations SOLUTION
Online black magic Specialist SOLUTION
Best Love Vashikaran Specialist
Get your love back by vashikaran Specialist
ALL SERVICES POWERFUL SOLUTIONS :-
IN Australia Adelaide , Brisbane , Canberra , Darwin , Hobart , Melbourne , Perth , Sydney
Vashikaran Specialist IN Ahmedabad , Bangalore , Bhubaneswar , Chandigarh , Chennai , Delhi , Goa , Hyderabad , Indore , Jaipur , Kerala , Kolkata , Lucknow , Mumbai , Pune ,Surat Andaman & Nicobar Islands , Andhra Pradesh , Arunachal Pradesh , Assam , Bihar , Chandigarh , Chattisgarh , Dadra & Nagar Haveli , Daman & Diu , Delhi , Goa , Gujarat , Haryana , Himachal Pradesh , Jammu & Kashmir , Jharkhand , Karnataka , Kerala , Lakshadweep , Madhya Pradesh , Maharashtra , Manipur , Meghalaya , Mizoram , Nagaland ,*Orissa , Pondicherry , Punjab , Rajasthan , Sikkim , Tamil Nadu , Tripura , Uttar Pradesh , Uttarakhand , West Bengal
( PUNJAB ) Abohar Amritsar Barnala Batala Bathinda Faridkot Fazilka MUKTSAR Firozpur Firozpur Cantonment Gurdaspur Hoshiarpur Jagraon Jalandhar Kapurthala Khanna Kotkapura Ludhiana Malerkotla Malout MandiGobindgarh Mansa Moga Mohali Nabha Pathankot Patiala Phagwara Rajpura
Sangrur Sirhind SriMuktsarSahib Suna ( RAJSTHAN ) Ajmer Alwar Balotra Banswara Baran Bari Barmer Beawar Bharatpur Bhilwara Bikaner Bundi Chittorgarh Chomu Churu Dausa Dholpur Ganganagar Gangapur City Hanumangarh Hindaun Jaipur Jaisalmer Jodhpur Karauli Kishangarh Kota
Kuchaman Ladnun Makrana Nagaur Nawalgarh Nimbahera Pali Pushkar Rajgarh Rajsamand Ratangarh Sardarshahar Sawai Madhopur Sikar Sujangarh Suratgarh Tonk Udaipur { Madhya Pradesh } Ashok nagar Balaghat Betul Bhind Bhopal Bina Etawa Burhanpur Chhatarpur Chhindwara Dabra DamohDatia Dewas Dhanpuri DharGuna Gwalior Harda Hoshangabad Indore Itarsi Jabalpur Jaora Katni Khandwa Khargone Mandla Mandsaur Mhow Morena Nagda Narsinghpur Nimach Panna Parasia Pithampur Ratlam Rewa Sagar Sarni Satna Sehore Seoni Shahdol Shajapur Sheopur Shivpuri Singrauli Tikamgarh Ujjain Vidisha { Haryana } Ambala Ambala Sadar Bahadurgarh Bhiwani Faridabad Fatehabad Gurgaon Hansi Hisar Jagadhri Jhajjar Jind Kaithal Karnal Kurukshetra Mandi Dabwali Narnaul Narwana Palwal Panchkula Panipat Rewari Rohtak Sirsa Sonipat Thanesar Tohana Yamunanagar ( Gujarat )
Ahmedabad Amreli Anand Anjar Ankleshwar Bardoli Bharuch Bhavnagar Bhuj Bilimora Borsad Botad Chandkheda Chandlodiya Dabhoi Dahod Deesa Dholka Dhoraji Dhrangadhra Dwarka Gandhidham Gandhinagar Ghatlodiya Godhra Gondal Himatnagar Jamnagar Jetpur Junagadh Kadi Kalol Kandla Keshod Khambhat Mahuva Mandvi Mangrol Mehsana Modasa Morbi Nadiad Navsari Palanpur Palitana Patan Petlad Porbandar Rajkot Ranip Savar kundla Sidhpur
Surat Surendra nagar Una Unjha Upleta Vadodara Valsad Vapi Vejalpur Veraval Vijalpor Viramgam
Visnagar ( Maharashtra ) Achalpur Ahmednagar Akola Akot Amalner Ambajogai Amravati Anjangaon Aurangabad Badlapur Ballarpur Baramati Barshi Basmath Beed Bhadravati Bhandara Bhusawal Buldhana Chalisgaon Chandrapur Chopda Deolali Dhule Gondia Hinganghat HingoliIchal karanji Jalgaon Jalna Kalyan Kamthi Karad Karanja Khamgaon Khopoli Kolhapur Kopargaon Latur Lonavla Malegaon Malkapur Manmad Miraj Mumbai Nagpur Nanded Nandurbar Nashik Navghar Manikpur Navi Mumbai Osmanabad Palghar Pandharpur Panvel Parbhani Parli Phaltan Pimpri Chinchwad Pune Pusad Raigad Ratnagiri Sangamner Sangli Satara Shegaon Shirpur Shrirampur Solapur Thane Udgir UranIslampur Vasai Virar Wani Wardha Washim Yavatmal ( Karnataka ) Bagalkot Bangalore Basavakalyan Belgaum Bellary Bhadravathi Bidar Bijapur Chamrajnagar Channapatna Chikkaballapur Chikmagalur
Chintamani Chitradurga Dandeli Davanagere Doddaballapur Gadag Gangavathi Gokak Gulbarga Harihar Hassan Haveri Hospet HubliIlkal Jamakhandi Karwar Kolar Kollegal Koppal Mandya Mangalore Mysore Nipani Rabkavi Banhatti Raichur Ramanagaram Ranebennur Robertsonpet Sagara Shimoga Sindhnur SiraSirsi Tiptur Tumkur ( Jammu & Kashmir )
Anantnag Baramulla Jammu Kathua Leh Sopore Srinagar Udhampur ( Uttar Pradesh ) Agra Aligarh Allahabad Amroha Auraiya Azamgarh Baheri Bahraich
Ballia Balrampur Banda Barabanki Baraut Bareilly Basti Behta Hajipur Bela Pratapgarh Bhadohi Bijnor Bisalpur Budaun Bulandshahr Chandausi Chandpur Chhibramau Dadri Deoband Deoria Etah Etawah Faizabad Faridpur Farrukhabad Fatehpur Firozabad Gangaghat Gangoh Ghaziabad Ghazipur Gola Gokarannath Gonda Gorakhpur Greater Noida Hapur Hardoi Hasanpur Hathras Jahangirabad Jalalpur Jaunpur Jhansi Kairana Kannauj Kanpur Kasganj Khatauli Khurja Kiratpur Konch Laharpur Lakhimpur Lalitpur Loni Lucknow Mahoba Mainpuri Mathura Mau Mauranipur Mawana Meerut Mirzapur Modinagar Moradabad Mubarakpur Mughalsarai Muradnagar Muzaffarnagar Nagina Najibabad Nawabganj Noida Obra Orai Pilibhit Pilkhuwa Raebareli Rampur Rath Renukoot Saharanpur Sahaswan Sambhal Shahabad Shahjahanpur Shamli Sherkot Shikohabad Sikandrabad Sitapur Sultanpur Tanda Tilhar Tundla Ujhani Unnao Varanasi Vrindavan Vashikaran Specialist IN Singapore Andaman & Nicobar Islands , Andhra Pradesh , Arunachal Pradesh , Assam , Bihar , Chandigarh , Chattisgarh , Dadra & Nagar Haveli , Daman & Diu , Delhi , Goa , Gujarat , Haryana , Himachal Pradesh , Jammu & Kashmir , Jharkhand , Karnataka , Kerala , Lakshadweep , Madhya Pradesh , Maharashtra , Manipur , Meghalaya , Mizoram , Nagaland , Orissa , Pondicherry , Punjab , Rajasthan , Sikkim , Tamil Nadu , Tripura , Uttar Pradesh , Uttarakhand , West Bengal OMAN canada america Usa in Ontario , Toronto Kuwait , Qatar , Doha , Saudi Arabia* , San Francisco Singapore , Italy , Germany , Paris , Belgium, France , Berlin , Spain UK, USA, AUSTRALIA,
United Arab Emirates
UAE, DUABI, CANADA, ENGLAND,united kingdom,SINGAPORE, NEWZEALAND, GERMANY, ITALY, MALASIYA,Abu dhabi London IN New York kuwait SouthAfrica,South Korea,Thailand Qatar,England,Queens California HongKong Japan Brazil Switzerland colombia Saudi Arabia maxcio city Howland Island CANADA Alberta. Vancouver Brampton British Columbia. Manitoba. New Brunswick. Newfoundland and Labrador. Nova Scotia. Ontario.Victoria Prince Edward Island Europe United States KUWAIT ITALY, MALASIYA Vashikaran Specialist IN United Kingdom Aberdeen , Birmingham , Brighton , Bristol , Cambridge , Devon ,East Midlands , Eastanglia , Edinburgh , Glasgow , Hampshire , Leeds , Liverpool , London , Manchester , Newcastle , Oxford , Sheffield , Wales
Vashikaran Specialist IN New Zealand Auckland , Christchurch , Dunedin , Wellington Vashikaran Specialist IN New York :- AMERICA Albany , Binghamton , Bronx , Brooklyn , Buffalo , Catskills , Chautauqua , Elmira , Fairfield , Finger Lakes , Glens Falls , Hudson Valley , Ithaca , Long Island , Manhattan , Oneonta , Plattsburgh , Potsdam , Queens , Rochester , Staten Island , Syracuse , Twin Tiers , Utica , Watertown
submitted by Pt_Ramdas_PujariJi to u/Pt_Ramdas_PujariJi [link] [comments]


2020.06.01 00:56 Pickup_your_nuts The ‘no. 8 wire’ tradition

Perhaps because they live a great distance from any other country, New Zealanders have always had to invent things they could not easily obtain.
Māori developed skills in weaving and carving, and at making voyaging canoes, stone weapons and fortified pā, that astonished the Europeans who first saw them. In 1819 the British naval officer Richard Cruise was impressed at how a Bay of Islands chief named Tetoro had made a stock (wooden butt) for his musket, ‘with much ingenuity. The place for the barrel had been hollowed out by fire, and the excavation for the lock, though made with an old knife and wretched chisel, was singularly accurate.’
In 1900 New Zealand had the highest number of patent applications per capita in the world. In 2006 New Zealand was ranked fourth in the world for patents filed in proportion to gross domestic product (GDP), and fifth on the basis of population. This tradition of Kiwi ingenuity is often known as the ‘no. 8 wire’ attitude, a reference to a gauge of fencing wire that has been adapted for countless other uses in New Zealand farms, factories and homes.
Poultry power
The first electric street lighting in one Nelson suburb was powered by a small hydroelectric generator in the hills above the city. To switch the lights on and off, a chicken run was added to the power plant. At dusk every night the hens would go inside their coop and roost on a special hinged perch. This sank under their weight and connected a switch which turned on the street lights. At first light the hens would leave the coop, the spring-loaded perch swung back and the lights went out again
The culture of invention
Nonetheless, many New Zealand inventions have been produced by trained engineers and tradespeople aiming to improve on the tools and machinery they worked with. Cecil Wood, a Timaru engineer, built his own car about 1900 based on brief descriptions and pictures of the first European models. The Thermette, a simple and effective device for boiling water outdoors over an enclosed fire, was invented by Manawatū plumber John Hart and patented in 1931. It was still widely used in the 2000s.
Farmers and others without technical training have also found inventive ways to make their work easier and life more enjoyable. In the 1920s Ernest Godward, an Invercargill cycle dealer, invented improved bicycles, motorcycles, and a carburettor which went on to be used in motor vehicles around the world.
Women inventors include Norma McCulloch, a Rongotea housewife who developed a hand pump for extracting air from freezer bags in 1975. A simple cardboard tube with a metal tube sliding inside it, the pump sold to Australia, Britain, Canada and the US. McCulloch Industries branched out into making innovative cooking and medical equipment.
Instant success
Invercargill spice and coffee merchant David Strang took out a patent for ‘Strang’s Patent Soluble Dry Coffee-powder’ in 1890 and is credited with inventing instant coffee. His method entailed blowing hot air over liquid coffee until it became solid. Strang’s invention was forgotten until Heritage New Zealand registered his son James’s house in Invercargill and did some research on the family.
Best-known New Zealand invention
Perhaps the highest-profile New Zealand invention is the bungy jump, developed for commercial use by builder A. J. Hackett. In June 1987 Hackett made a highly publicised and illegal bungy jump from the Eiffel Tower in Paris. The world's first commercial bungy site opened the following year in Queenstown. By 2009 Australia, Bali, France, Germany, Malaysia and Macau also had commercial bungy operations.
Source
Disclaimer
I believe deciding New Zealand's best invention is up for debate, as the bungy is up there, heh. But our inventions among other fields warrant great recognition.
Early patenting system
New Zealand’s first system for officially issuing patents was set up in 1860. The Patents Act 1860, closely modelled on a similar British law, established the New Zealand Patent Office. In 1861 it issued its first patent to A. G. Purchas and J. Ninnis for ‘An Invention for the preparation of the Fibre of the Phormium tenax (flax)’. From 1882 applications for patents could be filed at any courthouse, greatly speeding up the process of application and registering. In 1889 a revised Patents Act allowed the Patent Office to also administer trademarks and designs.
Pioneering New Zealand inventions
Commercially successful inventions tend to be those that meet immediate practical needs. The most common patents in the 1860s and 1870s related to flax spinning and gold mining, but from the 1880s inventions for farm machinery overtook them. Ernest Hayes produced many new tools and gadgets from a small shed on his Central Otago farm, including an improved wire strainer for farm fences, patented in 1923 and still made and widely used in the 2000s.
As local manufacturing industries developed, they resulted in more sophisticated inventions such as the Tullen snips – scissors made using a heat-treating process, which were tough enough to cut coins in half. By the 1980s more than 20 million had been sold.
New Zealand’s public health system has produced medical inventions such as the Baeyertz measuring tape for accurately predicting human birth dates, patented in 1982 and still used worldwide in the 2000s. New Zealand is earthquake-prone, and government scientist Bill Robinson developed the seismic shock absorber, a flexible building pile. It now protects major public buildings such as the University of California Teaching Hospital, Tokyo’s central post office, and New Zealand’s Parliament Buildings and national museum.
That puts a lid on it
Failing to patent an invention can enable others to profit from it. In 1884 John Eustace, a Dunedin tinsmith, invented the airtight lid still used on containers such as paint cans and tins of golden syrup. He sent to England to have a die made to mass-produce his invention, but did not take out a patent on it. Soon many British companies began making lids using the Eustace design. One company even offered Eustace thousands of pounds for the rights to it, before realising they could legally copy it for nothing.
Patent agents
Patent agents are experts in patent law who assist inventors and others to register and protect their inventions. New Zealand’s first patent agent, Henry Hughes, was an engineer from the north of England who specialised in steam locomotives. He migrated to Wellington with his family in the 1870s and set up the country’s first patent agency in 1882. One of his agency’s early clients was the aviation pioneer Richard Pearse, perhaps New Zealand’s most renowned inventor. Henry Hughes Ltd is New Zealand’s oldest firm of patent and trademark attorneys. The New Zealand Institute of Patent Attorneys, the professional body representing patent agents, was established in 1912.
Source
submitted by Pickup_your_nuts to ConservativeKiwi [link] [comments]


2020.05.19 04:43 lolpolice88 The land of the wrong white crowd: Growing up and living in the shadow of racism

https://e-tangata.co.nz/history/the-land-of-the-wrong-white-crowd-growing-up-and-living-in-the-shadow-of-racism/
" For much of his life, Trevor Richards has been fighting racism both here and internationally, most notably as one of the founders of HART (Halt All Racist Tours) which campaigned against New Zealand’s sporting ties with apartheid South Africa. Here he looks back at the history of New Zealand’s race relations, which was once touted (by Pākehā New Zealanders) as the best in the world.
I was one of the early baby boomers, born in South Auckland towards the end of 1946. I grew up in the north, in Kaikohe and Paihia, before heading off to university in Auckland. My teenage stamping ground was the cradle of early European settlement. Kororāreka, New Zealand’s first capital until 1841, was a short ferry ride away. Re-named Russell in 1844, I could see it from our front door. It was on the hill overlooking Kororāreka that Ngāpuhi chief Hōne Heke Pōkai and his supporters chopped down the flagstaff, not once, but four times. War followed.
The Waitangi Treaty Grounds, where, five years earlier, Heke had signed the Treaty, was even closer to where we lived. Five minutes in the opposite direction was the site of the country’s first church. Built of raupo, it had been constructed in 1823. The church which now stands on the site was only erected in 1925, but its adjoining graveyard dates from 1826. The Mission House and the Old Stone Store in Kerikeri, New Zealand’s two oldest surviving buildings, were no more than a short Sunday afternoon drive away.
Being surrounded by all this history was great. But in school, we weren’t taught much about it — and what we were taught was a history viewed pretty much through a 19th century Pākehā lens. Growing up in the Bay of Islands felt like growing up in the middle of an old disused movie set. The props from our past were all there, and we doffed our hats in their direction on occasions, but it was as if they no longer had any real relevance to contemporary life.
📷
Trevor, after a day of fishing.
As a Pākehā kid, I can’t recall the word “racism” being used very much. In the 1950s and 1960s, most Pākehā New Zealanders believed that our race relations were great. At Northland College in Kaikohe in the early 1960s, Prime Minister Keith Holyoake told our school assembly that New Zealand had “the best race relations in the world”. Newspapers were regularly reporting someone or other expressing such views.
Our next door neighbour in Kaikohe, a widower in his 80s, certainly believed that this was the case. One night in 1957, as we were tracking the Russian Sputnik across the night sky , he commented approvingly on a recent newspaper story praising the state of our race relations — before going on to marvel at the strength of the light the Russians had put in their satellite.
At the time, most Pākehā believed that they had been fair in their dealings with Māori, and that, if there was a problem, it was the other party in the relationship that was to blame.
For most, this wasn’t based on any real understanding. There was little or no awareness of anything indigenous. Māori history, language, culture and values were subjects for neither contemplation nor discussion. Most Pākehā wouldn’t have known the difference between a pōwhiri and a waiata.
In the days of my childhood, land confiscation and the systematic destruction and debasement of an indigenous culture were unacknowledged concepts. An awareness of the effects of English colonialism and its impact on Māori was an understanding for a future time. To many Pākehā at this time, Māori was simply “Hori” — an overweight, happy-go-lucky, not very bright character who was work-shy and drank too much. This derogatory term became more common in the 1960s as Māori became increasingly urbanised.
What often sustains racism and gives it potency is that it’s not recognised for what it is by those practising and benefiting from it. A majority culture can belittle the minority culture without thinking — without even knowing it’s doing so.
Many Pākehā (fewer now) took their privileges for granted, and were oblivious to the conditions under which Māori and other ethnic minority groups lived. The “natural order of things” often turns out to be the result of a narrow, insular, self-serving vision based on a series of unrecognised, embedded racist assumptions. Those racist assumptions can form the basis of the majority culture’s attitudinal DNA.
📷
Trevor with his sister Shirley, parents Ruth and Wilfred, and maternal grandparents Nellie and Frederick Civil.
I don’t remember much of my early years in South Auckland. Kaikohe I remember well — which is different from saying that there was much understanding involved. TS Eliot writes in Little Gidding, the last of his Four Quartets, lines that first struck home when I was writing Dancing on Our Bones: New Zealand, South Africa, Rugby and Racism:
We shall not cease from exploration And the end of all our exploring Will be to arrive where we started And know the place for the first time.
That observation is certainly true of my recollections of growing up in Kaikohe. Looking back, Māori were all around us, but what did we know about them and their lives? It was Pākehā who were in control and the town reflected Pākehā dominance. Māori had lived in the area for more than 500 years, but the streets and roads in the town centre were named after Europeans — Clifford, Routley, de Merle, Bisset — whoever they were.
Kaikohe was not unique. It was pretty much the same throughout the country. Irrespective of whose whakapapa dominated a particular area, the names on street signs were mostly European. In Kaikohe, some roads had descriptive names — Hillcrest, Memorial, Park, Recreation. There were some streets named after trees — Kowhai and Tawa — and yes, a few on the outer reaches of the central township did have Māori names. Hongi, Heke and Wihongi.
But, mostly, central Kaikohe was all very Pākehā, despite its history, and the significant number of Māori living in the area. There was a large Māori settlement in the west of the town on Rangihamama Rd, which most people I knew referred to simply as “Rangi Rd”. Unlike the roads in the town centre, Rangihamama Rd was bumpy, potholed and unsealed.
Most, if not all, of the retail outlets were owned and operated by Pākehā. The local council had a succession of white mayors and although there may have been Māori councillors, I don’t recall any. The town’s one picture theatre, the Regent, had two floors: upstairs and downstairs. In the years that I was at college, upstairs was one shilling and three pence, downstairs was nine pence. Upstairs had comfortable padded seats. Downstairs the seats were much less comfy. Pākehā sat upstairs. Māori sat downstairs.
That wasn’t the law — but it was the reality, the result of a mix of social convention and economic realities. At the time, I didn’t regard any of this as in any sense wrong or unfair. It was just the way it was.
📷
Kaikohe Primary School, forms 1 and 2, 1958. Trevor is second from right, bottom seated row. Until 1969, most Māori children went to the Kaikohe Native School.
At primary school, we were taught about the arrival of Kupe, Toi and Whātonga and The Great Migration. At Northland College, we were taught about something called “The Māori Wars”. It was some time before they became known as “The New Zealand Wars”.
Fortunately, some of our teachers were living in advance of their time. In the fourth form, I recall writing an essay in which I quoted from a book, written by an early settler, which I had found on my grandfather’s bookshelf. The author was no Elsdon Best. Alongside one of the passages critical of Māori, which I had taken from the book, my teacher (Jim Gale, who, by the 1970s, was a well-known anti-racist activist) had quoted from Lear in the margin: “More sinned against than sinning.”
All power to teachers! In Kaikohe, in the 1960s, there were scarcely any others to keep the flame of liberal values alive.
📷
Trevor, with wreath, on Anzac Day 1961.
Northland College isn’t much more than half an hour from Waitangi, and the Treaty grounds were no more than a brisk walk from our home in Paihia, where I lived during the last few years of my time at secondary school.
My first enduring memory of Waitangi was February 6, 1963. The Queen, on her second visit to New Zealand, attended celebrations at the Treaty grounds. I was part of a Boy Scout Guard of Honour which greeted her as she stepped ashore at the Waitangi jetty. I’d been told by our college principal that “this will be the most important day of your life”.
That was a build-up on which the day sadly failed to deliver. Everybody in the official party down at the jetty had just looked so uninspiring. The PM, Keith Holyoake, looked too much like New Zealand Herald cartoonist Gordon Minhinnick’s caricatures to be taken seriously, and the Queen didn’t look that much different from many others her age that I’d seen at the Kaikohe A&P Show.
As to the actual events at Waitangi which followed, I don’t remember much about them. Platitudinous speeches are rarely memorable. I left the Treaty grounds, empty and disappointed, half wondering how I was going to get through the rest of my life if this day was its most important.
The basis of national identity is often myths and easy generalities. When it came to matters of race, this was certainly so of New Zealand in the 1950s and 1960s. During those decades, assimilation was New Zealand’s official race relations policy. For most Pākehā, this meant claiming that once Māori adopted white ways and behaved like whites, they would be treated like whites. And that was it.
Assimilation was not a two-way street. Pākehā were not required to adopt or adapt to important aspects of Māori culture. For Māori, even speaking te reo was out. That was a road in the wrong direction.
Although we didn’t know it, as we baby boomers were growing up, huge changes were taking place in New Zealand society.
In 1945, the majority of Māori had lived in rural communities. Only 26 percent lived in towns and cities. By 1966, this had risen to 62 percent, and by 1986, almost 80 percent of Māori lived in towns and cities.
For Pākehā, the “golden weather” of New Zealand race relations was coming to an end. As Māori and Pākehā mixed more, the hoax of assimilation became more clear. Young Māori radicals began arguing that, for Māori, the way forward was to return to and rediscover their roots. A Māori renaissance was underway. When Ngā Tamatoa declared there was no Māori problem — “What we have is a problem with Pākehā” — many Pākehā, who hadn’t spent five minutes examining any aspect of their relationship with Māori, felt threatened.
📷
Members of Ngā Tamatoa on the steps of Parliament Buildings, 1972. They are (from back left) Toro Waaka (Ngāti Kahungunu), John Ohia (Ngāi Te Rangi, Ngāti Pūkenga), Paul Kotara (Ngāi Tahu), Tame Iti (Ngāi Tuhoe), and (from front left) Orewa Barrett-Ohia (Ngāti Maniapoto), Rawiri Paratene (Ngāpuhi) and Tiata Witehira (Ngāpuhi). (Alexander Turnbull Library)
I was at Auckland University when Ngā Tamatoa was formed. What Syd Jackson, Ted Nia, Tame Iti and others were talking about wasn’t all that radical. Their chief concerns were the continuing confiscation of Māori land and the rapid disappearance of their language. What was “radical” was their presentation of this message. Articulate and uncompromising, their take-no-prisoners approach signalled the beginning of a new chapter in Māori protest.
As the ‘60s became the ‘70s, the focus on race issues, both domestic and international, increased. Academics and church leaders, university students and trade unionists were speaking out.
In 1970, Eric Gowing, the Anglican Bishop of Auckland, neatly tied issues of apartheid and domestic racism together when he said “what we think about sporting contacts with South Africa depends on what we think about racism”.
In 1970, anti-apartheid organisations, including the recently formed HART (Halt All Racist Tours), churches and trade unions came together to form the New Zealand Race Relations Council (NZRRC) under the leadership of Jim Gale, my Northland College fourth form social studies teacher.
The council’s basic aim, “was to extend and promote understanding, cooperation and harmony between the races”. Honorary vice-presidents included the Māori Queen, Te Atairangikaahu, the Ombudsman, Sir Guy Powles, Cardinal McKeefry, the four Māori MPs, and two Anglican bishops (Eric Gowing from Auckland, and Walter Robinson from Dunedin). The patron was Sir Edmund Hillary.
The growing indications were that there was no way, when it came to race issues, that 1970s New Zealand was going to be quiet. I was happy to know that whatever it was that lay ahead, there was a solid base of mainstream New Zealand that had committed itself to an important set of beliefs — even if the NZRRC’s aims had been somewhat quaintly expressed.
📷
Rob Muldoon, New Zealand’s PM from 1975 to 1984.
And so it came to pass. Dominating most of the following decade and beyond was Robert Muldoon, National’s leader during much of the Third Labour Government (1972-75) and the prime minister from 1975 to 1984. He was the chief advocate of a virulent set of racist, populist policies and an unpleasant man.
If New Zealand was going to have a prime minister with such views, I was pleased it was someone who so polarised the country. Every time he made one of his more egregious statements, more people joined the ranks of those wanting change. By the end of the decade, racism had become an issue on which the country was deeply conflicted.
Central to this growing ongoing racial division were issues of land alienation. In 1975, Whina Cooper led a highly publicised 1,000-kilometre hīkoi from Te Hāpua in the Far North to Wellington protesting against the continuing loss of Māori land.
At the time, Māori land ownership had dwindled to five percent. The hīkoi was inspirational and game-changing. The genie was out of the bottle. In the early days of 1977, activists moved on to and then occupied land at Auckland’s Bastion Point in an attempt to prevent Ngāti Whātua land coming under the control of the Crown. They remained there for 507 days.
Protests spread as far as the United Kingdom. Coinciding with the 1977 Commonwealth Heads of Government meeting that was being held in London to mark the Queen’s silver jubilee, London-based HART activists, Kathy Baxter and Dave Wickham, organised protests outside New Zealand House demanding the return of Bastion Point to Ngāti Whātua.
In early 1978, another major land dispute flared up in Raglan, where local golf club authorities were planning to extend their 9-hole course to 18 by expanding over an ancient Māori burial site. The protest at Raglan and at Bastion Point were both eventually to have successful outcomes, though not before hundreds were arrested.
Looking back, on issues of race, it was not just “radicals” who were dominating the political landscape. The Third Labour Government was also making an impact. In April 1973, it cancelled that year’s Springbok rugby tour. In 1974, February 6 became known, for a brief period, as New Zealand Day.
At Waitangi that year, Prime Minister Norman Kirk’s spontaneous gesture of taking a small Māori boy by the hand as he moved to the speakers’ rostrum became a much talked about symbol of hope in the country’s future.
Not all my friends had viewed Kirk’s gesture positively — the word paternalism was heard on a number of occasions. But when I compared Waitangi 1975 with my experience of Waitangi 1963, I felt that as a country we had made some progress.
In October 1975, Labour created the Waitangi Tribunal to hear Māori claims of breaches of the Treaty of Waitangi, which included unresolved land disputes.
In 1976, the incoming National government entered office encouraging sporting contacts with South Africa. On the domestic race front, New Zealand Day reverted to being Waitangi Day.
In 1977, the Waitangi Tribunal convened briefly, but quickly went into recess.
In the 1970s, it wasn’t only Māori who were under attack. We’d welcomed 80,000 immigrants from neighbouring Pacific Islands when the New Zealand economy was booming and there was a shortage of labour, but couldn’t get rid of them fast enough when, by the mid-‘70s, the economy was in trouble.
The Dawn Raids, which had begun under the Third Labour Government, and intensified under the 1975 National government, focused on rounding up Pacific Islanders who had overstayed their visas. Sāmoan and Tongan overstayers were singled out. Many were stopped in the street and asked for proof of residency. At the time of these Dawn Raids, the majority of those guilty of overstaying were not citizens of New Zealand’s Pacific neighbours. They were from Australia, the UK, and South Africa — but that was okay, because they were white.
📷
The Polynesian Panthers at a protest rally in 1971. (Photo: John Miller)
Throughout the 1970s, the two strands of New Zealand’s anti-racist struggle — domestic and international — had supported each other. HART had been formed in 1969, the year before Ngā Tamatoa. Syd Jackson and Hana Te Hemara, representing the New Zealand Māori Students’ Association, were two of the 14 at the meeting which established HART.
From the beginning, Syd and other Ngā Tamatoa members were active in the anti-apartheid campaigns. One night, Syd and I were speaking in Rotorua against the 1976 All Black tour of South Africa when a bomb threat closed the meeting down.
HART also worked alongside the Polynesian Panther Party, which had been formed in Auckland in 1971 to promote the interests of New Zealand’s Pacific Island community. In 1972, HART organised a speaking tour in Christchurch for the Panthers to help them widen their support.
In 1974, representatives of Ngā Tamatoa, the Polynesian Panther Party, HART, and CARE met with representatives of the Ponsonby Rugby Football Club in an unsuccessful attempt to persuade them to abandon their planned 1975 tour of South Africa. At the time, 60 percent of Ponsonby residents were Polynesian, and polls indicated that 81 percent of Polynesians living in Ponsonby were opposed to the tour. The following year, HART branches around the country joined with other sympathetic organisations and individuals to prepare food for those on the hīkoi.
In the post-war period, it wasn’t only the realities of New Zealand race relations that many New Zealanders were either ignorant of, or in denial, about. As race became a major issue on the world stage, many in New Zealand were slow to respond positively to the new developing international consensus, especially when it came to Southern Africa.
Support for apartheid among politicians, sportsmen and business leaders was always more widespread than was officially conceded. In a visit to South Africa in 1967, the deputy prime minister, Jack Marshall, had been struck by what he had seen. On his return to New Zealand, in a letter to the South African prime minister, John Vorster, he wrote that he was “impressed by the good relations which seemed to me to exist between the Bantu and the white people. I saw no evidence of tension or resentment”. On another occasion, Marshall had also expressed the belief that Māori were “good bulldozer drivers”.
Tauranga’s National MP George Walsh visited South Africa and Southern Rhodesia in 1972. Of Ian Smith, he said: “This dedicated prime minister is becoming well known for his generous outlook.” He declared that Southern Rhodesia was “the best run country in Africa”, and that, in South Africa, “under separate development, the racial problems will resolve themselves”.
Allan McCready, who was the minister in charge of the Dawn Raids of the mid-1970s (and who went on to own a racehorse which he named “Dawn Raid”), commented on his return from Southern Rhodesia, in October 1973, that: “You can take the Bantu out of the bush, but you cannot take the bush out of the Bantu.” To Rotorua MP Harry Lapwood, anti-apartheid protestors were “mentally sick or warped in mind”.
📷
With Nelson Mandela, in 1995.
In 1994, Nelson Mandela was elected the first president of a new, democratic, non-racial South Africa, but, as late as 2008, at least one politician was still failing the apartheid test. In his first television debate with Helen Clark in the 2008 election campaign, National Party leader John Key claimed that he couldn’t remember whether, when at university in 1981, he’d been for or against that year’s Springbok tour — which is a bit like not being able to remember which party you voted for in the last election. What was probably running through Key’s mind when he gave this dumb answer was whether it was politically safe in 2008 to admit to having been in support of the tour.
There were many others, and they weren’t all politicians. A Wellington stockbroker and former All Black, Ron Jarden, returned from South Africa in 1968 convinced that apartheid was the only possible method of controlling and developing South Africa’s multi-racial society. “The natives have freedom from want and freedom from the danger of getting a spear through their stomach. They have family unity and continuing security and opportunity. Are these not more important than political freedom?”
Tom Pearce, the chairman of the Auckland Regional Authority, and an erstwhile house guest of Southern Rhodesia’s Minister of Law and Order, Desmond Lardner- Burke, praised the role of white men in history and called for restraining orders to be placed on anti-apartheid leaders.
For those seeking racial justice at home and abroad,1975-84 had been a particularly grim period. Internationally, New Zealand had always promoted the view that it was strongly opposed to apartheid, but its support over this period for New Zealand rugby’s continued links with South Africa rather got in the way of that claim.
For the National government, it wasn’t, as was often claimed, a case of keeping politics out of sport. Between 1972 and 1984, National fought four successive election campaigns making sport central to its political appeal. When the government’s international anti-apartheid rhetoric conflicted with its pro-apartheid domestic decision making, the government acted in accordance with domestic imperatives, but continued to keep on mouthing the rhetoric internationally.
Not so well remembered are the 1960-72 positions of New Zealand at the United Nations, when it either voted against, or abstained on, most resolutions which condemned South Africa.
At the time of Southern Rhodesia’s Unilateral Declaration of Independence in 1965, a Tanzanian representative was prompted to describe New Zealand as “enemy number one of Africa” — a theme which Tanzania and over 20 other nations were to give practical effect to 11 years later, when they walked out of the 1976 Montreal Olympics in protest against the New Zealand government’s outspoken support for that year’s All Black rugby tour of South Africa.
Prime Minister Muldoon had gone so far as to say that the 1976 All Blacks had gone to South Africa with his personal blessing and goodwill. Foreign minister Brian Talboys meanwhile had continued to assure the international community of New Zealand’s abhorrence of apartheid.
The Muldoon government had once again mouthed the anti-apartheid rhetoric for international consumption, while at the same time singing from an entirely different song sheet for perceived domestic advantage. As Africa boycotted the Montreal Olympics, the government was to discover the perils of speaking simultaneously out of both sides of its mouth.
By 1981, the New Zealand of my childhood was at war with itself. The battle between the values held by many of my parents’ generation, and those held by many baby boomers, was changing the way New Zealanders thought about themselves — the way they thought about the country they wanted New Zealand to be.
We were deeply divided over a wide range of issues. It was not just race. That divide included our attitudes to women’s rights, gay rights, and the issue of New Zealand’s role and place in the world. Were we an appendage of Empire, or were we an independent Pacific nation? In 1973, the Labour government answered this question when Prime Minister Norman Kirk sent a navy frigate to French Polynesia to protest against French nuclear testing in the Pacific.
The impact of the 1981 tour was widespread. First, we did not stop the tour, but we did show solidarity with those suffering under apartheid. Nelson Mandela told Dame Catherine Tizard in 1995 that, when he heard about the cancellation of the Hamilton game, “it felt like the sun coming out”. Second, at a time when they were badly needed, HART projected positive images of New Zealand internationally. We didn’t allow a small-minded, insular and racist government to speak for us. Third, we affirmed and promoted the power of protest. This had a positive impact on many issues, none more so than on issues of domestic racism.
Perhaps the greatest achievement of the tour protests was the way in which it springboarded the issue of Māori sovereignty into the mainstream of liberal thinking. Increasingly, it wasn’t credible to oppose racism in South Africa while ignoring it at home.
In 1981, activist and artist Ralph Hotere, ONZ, was painting his Black Union Jack series. My favourite is a mixed media work carrying the handwritten inscription Greetings from the land of the wrong white crowd. I love it, partly because its message, a vernacular play on the translation of the original Māori name for New Zealand, is totally unambiguous.
In 1985, the Fourth Labour Government, elected the previous year, revived the Waitangi Tribunal and extended its brief to cover claims to include any alleged breach of the Treaty since 1840.
In 1987, the Māori language became an official language of New Zealand. Not much more than a generation previously, kids in primary school were whacked for speaking te reo.
📷
Trevor with Springbok captain Francois Pienaar in 1994.
From 1988 to 1996, I was Africa Programme Manager for Volunteer Service Abroad, visiting projects in Tanzania, Zimbabwe, Botswana, Namibia and South Africa on a regular basis. The anti-apartheid campaigns of the ‘60s, ‘70s and ‘80s had exposed much anti-African sentiment in New Zealand. Born of ignorance, arrogance and racism, these views often went hand in hand with attitudes unsympathetic to the rights of tangata whenua. Travelling frequently in East and Southern Africa over this period exposed me to rich, sophisticated, and vibrant cultures about which their New Zealand critics knew nothing. As John Lennon said: “Living is easy with eyes closed.”
I’d been actively involved in the New Zealand anti-apartheid movement and the wider anti-racist struggle for more than 30 years. In 2004, my partner was appointed to a job at the OECD. For 12 years, we lived on Paris’s left bank, in the shadow of the Eiffel Tower.
France is so very different to New Zealand in so many respects, and yet, in some respects — and I am thinking now of racism — it’s not that dissimilar. Paris has an international reputation for being liberal, even revolutionary. To the casual tourist, it may be these things, but for many of those who live there, particularly those from any of France’s former colonies in North and West Africa, the City of Light is also a city of darkness.
Living there, it doesn’t take a terribly sharp scalpel to cut through the pretence and discover a society strongly infected with racism. France’s Muslim community, the largest in Europe, is a social underclass. This is a consequence of both France’s colonial past and its post-colonial history of indifference. At the time that I was living in France, an estimated 40 percent of Muslim youth in France were unemployed. French Muslims represented 7 to 8 percent of the country’s population, but 70 percent of its prison population. I doubt that the French figures today are very much different.
In New Zealand, we have recently passed the first anniversary of a white nationalist terrorist attack on two Christchurch Mosques. Fifty-one Muslims were killed. Twice, while I was living in Paris, the city was the subject of major attacks. The first, in January 2015, killed 17. The second, in November 2015, killed 130.
In both countries, the epicentre of these attacks became awash with candles, messages, flowers, graffiti. After the second attack in Paris, French journalist Natalie Nougayrede wrote: “It has become both a shrine and a celebration of the Paris we knew before.”
Similar sentiments were common following the Christchurch attack. But the nature of the attacks suffered by Paris and Christchurch were very different. In New Zealand, the attacker was a white nationalist and Muslims were the target. In France, the attackers were Muslim Jihadists, and it was French journalists, French Jews, and the French population as a whole who were the targets.
The response of many New Zealanders to the Christchurch attack was to stand by and embrace its Muslim community, but anti-Muslim incidents were also reported. Veiled Muslim women were yelled at in public places and told to go back to where they came from. (New Zealand is where they come from.)
What would the reaction have been here if the Christchurch attack had been carried out not by a white nationalist targeting Muslims, but by foreign Muslim jihadists, targeting the New Zealand population as a whole? Probably not too dissimilar to the reaction in France, where in the week following the first attack, 26 French mosques were attacked — by firebombs, gunfire, pigs heads and grenades. It was similar after the second attack.
To those who are culturally and/or ethnically different from mainstream Pākehā New Zealand, this country can demonstrate genuine empathy. It can also display an embittered version of hate. Fortunately, I don’t believe that these differing responses exist in equal measure.
Arriving back in New Zealand after 12 years in Europe, some changes were immediately obvious. Most noticeable was the growth and public acceptance of the use of te reo. What a delight! And how good it’s been to see basic “teach yourself Māori” being offered online as one of the activities during the coronavirus lockdown. Not that te reo has gained universal acceptance. For too many, the language is regarded as “useless”.
Returning, it was also encouraging to find that Waitangi Day celebrations had lost much of their hard-edged confrontation. At the time of my birth, the Treaty of Waitangi was just six years on from its 100th anniversary. Earlier this year, it reached its 180th anniversary.
Recently, the Māori Council issued a challenge to New Zealand. By the time of the Treaty’s 200th anniversary, it said, “we must set ambitious targets to rid the nation of racism”. Since 1840, racism has been an enduring feature of New Zealand life. Today, that racism is recognised for what it is by many Pākehā. For much of the last 180 years, it was not.
What are the chances of ending racism in New Zealand by 2040? The news on this front would seem to be both good and bad.
Structurally, racism continues to impact strongly on New Zealand society. The life expectancy of Māori is less than that of Pākehā. The percentage of Māori in prison — especially Māori women — far exceeds that of Pākehā. The percentage of unemployed Māori and of Māori living below the poverty line far exceeds that of Pākehā. The percentage of Māori in home ownership is lower compared to Pākehā.
Unemployment. Prison incarceration. Irrespective of country, racism always seems to impact negatively in exactly the same areas.
At the same time, attitudes and understanding are changing. There’s been undeniable progress since my visit to Waitangi in 1963. But it’s a slow and uneven progress across many fronts. Grievances associated with basic issues such as land alienation remain, as the recent occupation at Ihumātao illustrates.
For many, an unwillingness to recognise this country’s roots remains entrenched. In the poorly designed 2015-16 debate over whether New Zealand should change its flag, bad taste and racism were to the fore. The most popular new designs were ones better suited to either cereal packets or jam jars. The least supported — often ones with the better designs — were ones incorporating Māori motifs.
📷
Ōtorohanga College students who presented a petition to parliament calling for the New Zealand Wars to be taught in schools.
One piece of good news is that teaching New Zealand history in schools will soon be compulsory. Some schools are teaching some New Zealand history some of the time, but the Ministry of Education doesn’t know how much or to how many. As far back as 1938, James Cowan, one of New Zealand’s early preeminent historians, was questioning why New Zealand schools were teaching English history and not our own history. I must’ve been one of the lucky ones, even if what I was taught at Northland College was a history that reflected the prevailing attitudes of the time.
Move forward 81 years from Cowan’s observation to September 2019, and we have Jacinda Ardern’s announcement that, by 2022, all schools and kura in the country will be expected to teach New Zealand history. The curriculum changes being made will ensure that all students are aware of key aspects of New Zealand history and how they influenced and shaped the nation. Could this have elements of being a game changer?
Take Hōne Heke, for example. Chopping down the flagpole at Kororāreka is one of New Zealand history’s abiding images. I left college with a very 19th century colonial understanding of events: that Heke was some sort of lone, troublemaking malcontent who was finally put in his place by Governor George Grey.
But what if we’d been told that Heke, a Christian, and the first Māori to sign the Treaty, had been given assurances by Rev Henry Williams that, under the Treaty, the authority of Māori chiefs would be protected? The British government never kept this promise. Heke and other Māori felt betrayed. Their multiple attacks on the flagpole were taken out of a sense of that betrayal.
Historian Vincent O’Malley has written recently that “a mature nation takes ownership of its history, not just cherry-picking the good bits out to remember but also acknowledging the bad stuff as well. Moving confidently into the future requires a robust understanding of where we’ve come from and been”.
In one of the more famous lines in New Zealand poetry, Allan Curnow writes:
Not I, some child, born in a marvellous year Will learn the trick of standing upright here.
Vincent O’Malley again:
Reconciling ourselves to the history of this land — finding a place to stand — is not just about supporting the settlement of historical Treaty of Waitangi claims. That’s part of the story but not the whole solution. It’s about ordinary New Zealanders taking the time to acknowledge and even own this history. Learn about it, respect it, pass it on, make sure your children and their children learn these stories too. Not so they can feel guilty or ashamed about the actions of their ancestors. But so they can be big enough, and confident enough, to say, “yes, this is part of our history too.” It is only through understanding, accepting and reconciling ourselves to that history will we “learn the trick of standing upright here”.
Some New Zealanders are on the road “to ending racism”. Some are not. A large number of those who are not are probably not even aware that there is a need for such a journey. On the campaign trail, I would often quote Martin Luther King:
History will have to record that the greatest tragedy of this period of social transition was not the strident clamour of the bad people, but the appalling silence of the good people.
The Māori Council’s vision of ending racism by 2040 is an aspirational goal. The trick to making it more than that is for the country to learn what it means to stand upright here. That is happening. But by 2040?
📷Trevor Richards was one of 14 people who established the Halt All Racist Tours movement (HART) at Auckland University in July 1969. He was the movement’s first chair (1969-1980) and international secretary (1980-85). In 1977, he worked for the United Nations Centre Against Apartheid in New York, assisting in drawing up the UN International Declaration Against Apartheid in Sport. His account of New Zealand’s long campaign against apartheid sport, Dancing On Our Bones: New Zealand, South Africa, rugby and racism was published in 1999.
© E-Tangata, 2020"
submitted by lolpolice88 to Maori [link] [comments]


2020.05.13 23:26 sheli232 Applying as a Firefighter and/or Police Officer in NZ

Hello, I've had a search through the previous posts and can't find exactly what I'm looking for. I am interested in a job in the emergency services, mainly as a police officer or as a firefighter. I live in Dunedin but could move around Otago for work if I had to. I'm in my late twenties, and my current job is on the rocks over the next few months due to the big 'rona, so am keen to get some job security elsewhere.
I currently have an application underway to join NZ police, and am partway through the testing, but things move very slowly there and with the Covid delays also their timeframe to get to police college is very unknown, likely at least a year away or more.
I am also interested in joining fire and emergency as a recruit but there is less information online about this. From what I've read, their shifts are two days from 8am to 8pm, then two nights from 8pm to 8am, then four days (technically 3.5 days) off. For those in the know, are these shift hours usually pretty set in stone, or is there often overtime? Interested in this as it seems that police hours can often be extended at the end of their shift depending on what they are dealing with; does this happen less often for the fireys? Of course if you're at a major incident at the end of your shift, you would be staying if you had to; just interested in how often this happens.
One appealing part of the firefighter process is that there are clear dates for applying and for the 12 week training course in Rotorua (training dates are early next year for the upcoming application round), whereas for police you end up in the candidate pool with no real idea of when you would go to college. I hear that it is very competitive; can anyone here shed some light on how competitive this is, and how they found the application process as a whole? I've looked over the physical testing requirements, I am plenty fit enough for the police testing but would need to get more comfortable with weights for the fire testing. It appears that the same standards are necessary for men and women too, I am female.
Lastly, the work itself. I've learnt a lot about police work but less about firefighter duty, except that firefighting is more medical emergencies and car accidents now, as well as general education of the public. Does firefighting offer good levels of progression and variation of roles?
Thanks for any advice! Once things get up and running in Level 2 I'll likely ask around about volunteer firefighting too, if that is a possibility in Dunedin.
submitted by sheli232 to newzealand [link] [comments]